A Mock Google Token Generator

Transform a UUID into a form that looks similar to Google temporary passwords.

from uuid import uuid4
from shorten.key import bx_encode

def group(string, n):
   return [string[i:i+n] for i in range(0, len(string), n)]

class GoogleTokenGenerator(object):
   This will produce 16 character alphabetic revokation tokens similar
   to the ones Google uses for its application-specific passwords.

   Google tokens are of the form:


   with alphabetic characters only.

   alphabet = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'

   def create_token(self, key):
      token_length = 16
      group_size = 4
      groups = token_length/group_size

      # Generate a random UUID
      uuid = uuid4()

      # Convert it to a number with the given alphabet,
      # padding with the 0-symbol as needed)
      token = shorten.key.bx_encode(int(uuid.hex, 16), self.alphabet)
      token = token.rjust(token_length, self.alphabet[0])

      return '-'.join(group(token, group_size)[:groups])

from shorten import MemoryStore

store = MemoryStore(token_generator=GoogleTokenGenerator())
key, token = store.insert('aardvark')

# 'mmoy-vvwg-trhc-uzqq'

URL Shortening Service

Imitate goo.gl, bit.ly, tinyurl and countless other URL shortening services in under a hundred lines of code.

Flask, rfc3987 and redis are required.

$ virtualenv --no-site-packages .python && source .python/bin/activate
$ pip install flask rfc3987 redis

Our API will read in a URL from a POST variable and return JSON containing the shortened link and the revokation URL. Proper HTTP response codes are also returned - 400 for errors and 200 for successful operations.

Let’s set up the Flask skeleton code:

from flask import Flask, request, redirect, url_for
from flask import jsonify as _jsonify

def jsonify(obj, status_code=200):
   obj['status'] = 'error' if 'error' in obj else 'okay'
   res = _jsonify(obj)
   res.status_code = status_code
   return res

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/', methods=['POST'])
def shorten():

@app.route('/', methods=['GET'])
def bounce():

@app.route('/r', methods=['POST'])
def revoke(token):

After creating a Redis connection, the store should be created with a minimum key length (as to not conflict with site URLs) and a URL-safe alphabet:

import redis
from shorten import RedisStore, NamespacedFormatter, UUIDTokenGenerator
from shorten import alphabets

redis_client = redis.Redis()
formatter = NamespacedFormatter('shorten')
token_gen = UUIDTokenGenerator()

store = RedisStore(redis_client=redis_client,

Now the endpoint functions can be filled out:

from rfc3987 import parse
from werkzeug import iri_to_uri

from shorten import RevokeError

def valid_url(url):
   return bool(parse(url, rule='URI_reference'))

@app.route('/', methods=['POST'])
def shorten():
   url = request.form['url'].strip()

   if not valid_url(url):
      return jsonify({'error': str(e)}, 400)

   key, token = store.insert(url)

   url = url_for('bounce', key=key, _external=True)
   revoke = url_for('revoke', token=token, _external=True)

   return jsonify({'url': url, 'revoke': revoke})

@app.route('/<key>', methods=['GET'])
def bounce(key):
      uri = store[key]
      return redirect(iri_to_uri(uri))
   except KeyError as e:
      return jsonify({'error': 'url not found'}, 400)

@app.route('/r/<token>', methods=['POST'])
def revoke(token):
   except RevokeError as e:
      return jsonify({'error': e}, 400)

The above code can be found in example.py. To run the server, install gevent and Gunicorn, then run Gunicorn in the same directory as example.py:

$ pip install gunicorn gevent
$ gunicorn example:app -b -w 3 -k gevent_wsgi

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