Expectation Maximization Machine Learning Tools

This package is a part of Bob. It implements a general EM algorithm and includes implementations of the following algorithms:

  • K-Means
  • Maximum Likelihood (ML)
  • Maximum a Posteriori (MAP)
  • Inter Session Variability Modelling (ISV)
  • Joint Factor Analysis (JFA)
  • Total Variability Modeling (iVectors)
  • Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA)
  • EM Principal Component Analysis (EM-PCA)


[Reynolds2000]Reynolds, Douglas A., Thomas F. Quatieri, and Robert B. Dunn. Speaker Verification Using Adapted Gaussian Mixture Models, Digital signal processing 10.1 (2000): 19-41.
[Vogt2008]R. Vogt, S. Sridharan. ‘Explicit Modelling of Session Variability for Speaker Verification’, Computer Speech & Language, 2008, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17-38
[McCool2013]C. McCool, R. Wallace, M. McLaren, L. El Shafey, S. Marcel. ‘Session Variability Modelling for Face Authentication’, IET Biometrics, 2013
[Dehak2010]N. Dehak, P. Kenny, R. Dehak, P. Dumouchel, P. Ouellet, ‘Front End Factor Analysis for Speaker Verification’, IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, 2010, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 788-798
[ElShafey2014]Laurent El Shafey, Chris McCool, Roy Wallace, Sebastien Marcel. ‘A Scalable Formulation of Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis: Applied to Face Recognition’, TPAMI‘2014
[PrinceElder2007]Prince and Elder. ‘Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis for Inference About Identity’, ICCV‘2007
[LiFu2012]Li, Fu, Mohammed, Elder and Prince. ‘Probabilistic Models for Inference about Identity’, TPAMI‘2012
[Bishop1999]Tipping, Michael E., and Christopher M. Bishop. “Probabilistic principal component analysis.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 61.3 (1999): 611-622.
[Roweis1998]Roweis, Sam. “EM algorithms for PCA and SPCA.” Advances in neural information processing systems (1998): 626-632.
[WikiEM]Expectation Maximization
[Glembek2009]Glembek, Ondrej, et al. “Comparison of scoring methods used in speaker recognition with joint factor analysis.” Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2009. ICASSP 2009. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2009.
[Auckenthaler2000]Auckenthaler, Roland, Michael Carey, and Harvey Lloyd-Thomas. “Score normalization for text-independent speaker verification systems.” Digital Signal Processing 10.1 (2000): 42-54.
[Mariethoz2005]Mariethoz, Johnny, and Samy Bengio. “A unified framework for score normalization techniques applied to text-independent speaker verification.” IEEE signal processing letters 12.7 (2005): 532-535.

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