# Tutorials¶

This tutorial is a small example of how Arybo can be used to solve mathematical / reverse engineering issues.

## Symbloc evaluation of a complex function¶

(based on the example in examples/xor_5C.py)

From a reverse engineering point of view, it can be helpful to understand what this function is doing (extracted by Camille Mouget and Francis Gabriel):

def f(x):
v0 = x*0xe5 + 0xF7
v0 = v0&0xFF
v3 = (((((v0*0x26)+0x55)&0xFE)+(v0*0xED)+0xD6)&0xFF )
v4 = ((((((- (v3*0x2))+0xFF)&0xFE)+v3)*0x03)+0x4D)
v5 = (((((v4*0x56)+0x24)&0x46)*0x4B)+(v4*0xE7)+0x76)
v7 = ((((v5*0x3A)+0xAF)&0xF4)+(v5*0x63)+0x2E)
v6 = (v7&0x94)
v8 = ((((v6+v6+(- (v7&0xFF)))*0x67)+0xD))
res = ((v8*0x2D)+(((v8*0xAE)|0x22)*0xE5)+0xC2)&0xFF
return (0xed*(res-0xF7))&0xff


This function takes an 8-bit integer as an input and produces an 8-bit integer in the end. It looks like it’s doing complex operations, mixing both classical and boolean arithmetics. Let’s use Arybo to figure out what’s going on!

Let’s start by importing Arybo and create an 8-bit MBA space and an associated symbolic variable. Just print it to verify that this is a pure symbolic variable:

from arybo.lib import MBA
mba = MBA(8)
x = mba.var('x')
print(x)


Running this code gives the following output:

\$ python ./tuto1.py
Vec([
x0,
x1,
x2,
x3,
x4,
x5,
x6,
x7
])


We can now compute the symbolic boolean expressions associated with the function f. For this, simply copy-paste its code into your script, call it and print the output:

from arybo.lib import MBA
mba = MBA(8)
x = mba.var('x')
def f(x):
[...]
ret = f(x)
print(ret)


Running this script gives the following output:

Vec([
X0,
X1,
(X2 + 1),
(X3 + 1),
(X4 + 1),
X5,
(X6 + 1),
X7
])


As stated in the theory section, petanque expressions are boolean expressions using additions and multiplications modulo 2. This means than the addition is equivalent to a binary XOR, and the multiplication to a binary AND. Thus, what we see in the output above is basically the input X xored with the 8-bit constant (0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0) (with the LSB bit on the left).

We can ask Arybo to find this constant for us thanks to the arybo.lib.MBAVariable.vectorial_decomp() function:

from arybo.lib import MBA
mba = MBA(8)
x = mba.var('x')
def f(x):
[...]
ret = f(x)
app = ret.vectorial_decomp([x])
print(app)
print(hex(app.cst().get_int_be()))


The output is the following:

App NL = Vec([
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0
])
AffApp matrix = Mat([
[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0]
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1]
])
AffApp cst = Vec([
0,
0,
1,
1,
1,
0,
1,
0
])
0x5c


We can see in the end the constant 0x5c. The vectorial decomposition confirms that this function is in the end simply a binary XOR of an 8-bit integer with the 0x5c constant.

## Dirac function¶

(based on the example in examples/dirac.py)

A “dirac” function is a function that is always null in its domain except for one value. These functions are interesting because reverse engineers could bruteforce them and think after some moment that they are always returning the same value. This could make the reverse engineer produce false code and/or slow her down in her whole understanding of the program.

In such a case, Arybo allows us to prove on the whole input domain that the function isn’t constant, and to find which input produces a different value.

An example of a dirac function is this one:

def f(X):
T = ((X+1)&(~X))
C = ((T | 0x7AFAFA697AFAFA69) & 0x80A061440A061440)\
+ ((~T & 0x10401050504) | 0x1010104)
return C


It takes a 64-bit input and produces a 64-bit input.

Trying some values output:

>>> print(f(0))
45142941144388932
>>> print(f(1))
45142941144388932
>>> print(f(10))
45142941144388932
>>> print(f(1<<32))
45142941144388932


Bruteforcing this function that takes a 64-bit integer as input could take months. Using Arybo, we can output the boolean symbolic expressions associated with this function:

from arybo.lib import MBA
mba = MBA(64)
x = mba.var('x')
def f(X):
T = ((X+1)&(~X))
C = ((T | 0x7AFAFA697AFAFA69) & 0x80A061440A061440)\
+ ((~T & 0x10401050504) | 0x1010104)
return C
print(f(x))
>>> Vec([
0,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
1,
0,
1,
0,
1,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
1,
1,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
1,
1,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
1,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
1,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
1,
0,
1,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
((X0 * X1 * X2 * X3 * X4 * X5 * X6 * X7 * X8 * X9 * X10 * X11 * X12 * X13 * X14 * X15 * X16 * X17 * X18 * X19 * X20 * X21 * X22 * X23 * X24 * X25 * X26 * X27 * X28 * X29 * X30 * X31 * X32 * X33 * X34 * X35 * X36 * X37 * X38 * X39 * X40 * X41 * X42 * X43 * X44 * X45 * X46 * X47 * X48 * X49 * X50 * X51 * X52 * X53 * X54 * X55 * X56 * X57 * X58 * X59 * X60 * X61 * X62) + (X0 * X1 * X2 * X3 * X4 * X5 * X6 * X7 * X8 * X9 * X10 * X11 * X12 * X13 * X14 * X15 * X16 * X17 * X18 * X19 * X20 * X21 * X22 * X23 * X24 * X25 * X26 * X27 * X28 * X29 * X30 * X31 * X32 * X33 * X34 * X35 * X36 * X37 * X38 * X39 * X40 * X41 * X42 * X43 * X44 * X45 * X46 * X47 * X48 * X49 * X50 * X51 * X52 * X53 * X54 * X55 * X56 * X57 * X58 * X59 * X60 * X61 * X62 * X63))


What we can observe is that every output bit is a constant except for the last one. According to the values we computed earlier, this last bit seems to be mostly zero:

print(45142941144388932 & (1<<63))
>>> 0


We thus can use the boolean expression solver to figure out which values would make this boolean expression true, thanks to the arybo.lib.boolean_expr_solve() function:

from arybo.lib import MBA, boolean_expr_solve
mba = MBA(64)
x = mba.var('x')
def f(X):
T = ((X+1)&(~X))
C = ((T | 0x7AFAFA697AFAFA69) & 0x80A061440A061440)\
+ ((~T & 0x10401050504) | 0x1010104)
return C
r = f(x)
print(boolean_expr_solve(r, x, 1))
>>> [Vec([
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
0
])]


We see that only one value makes this last boolean expression true. Let’s convert it to an integer and test the final result:

from arybo.lib import MBA, boolean_expr_solve
mba = MBA(64)
x = mba.var('x')
def f(X):
T = ((X+1)&(~X))
C = ((T | 0x7AFAFA697AFAFA69) & 0x80A061440A061440)\
+ ((~T & 0x10401050504) | 0x1010104)
return C
r = f(x)
sols = boolean_expr_solve(r, x, 1)
C0 = sols.get_int_be()
print(hex(C0))
>>> 0x7fffffffffffffff
print(hex(f(0)))
>>> 0xa061440b071544
print(hex(f(C0)))
>>> 0x80a061440b071544