PyObjC protocol support
Apple makes use of both formal and informal protocols in the Cocoa framework. Formal protocols are those protocols that are implemented using Objective-C protocols:
@protocol NSFoo <NSSomeProtocol> -(int)doesIt; @end
Conforming to a formal protocol requires the interface of a class to explicitly declare that it implements that protocol, and the implementation must implement all required methods of the protocol.
Informal protocols are defined as categories on NSObject with no implementation:
@interface NSObject(FooDelegate) -(void)optionalFooDelegateMethod; @end
Conforming to an informal protocol is much like conforming to a protocol in Python,
the class simply implements the methods as documented. In most cases, informal
protocols are comprised entirely of optional methods (i.e. NSApplicationDelegate)
and a check is made (i.e.
-[NSObject respondsToSelector:]) before sending
the message to the target.
Informal protocols and PyObjC
PyObjC has an explicit representation for informal protocols. This makes it possible to use the protocol description to provide better error messages and to automaticly deduce the method signatures for classes that implement an informal protocol.
Informal protocols are represented using instances of
objc.informal_protocol. Instances of this class are added to
a internal registration in the bridge, and are automaticly used when a new
class is declared. Because of this classes don’t have to declare that they
conform to an informal protocol.
Formal protocols and PyObjC
PyObjC also has an explicit representation for formal protocols.
Formal protocols are represented as instances of
Unlike informal protocols, it is necessary to explicitly declare
conformance to formal protocols. However, all formal protocols in Cocoa
are also described using
In python 2.x declaring conformance to a formal protocol is done by using the formal protocol as a mix-in, and by implementing its methods:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking') class MyLockingObject(NSObject, NSLocking): def lock(self): pass def unlock(self): pass
In python 3.x you don’t use the protocols as mix-ins, but specify them as a keyword argument:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking') class MyLockingObject(NSObject, protocols=[NSLocking]): def lock(self): pass def unlock(self): pass
And finally, it is also possible to specify the protocols that the class conforms to using an attribute named __pyobjc_protocols__ in the class body. This works for both Python 2.x and 3.x, and is primarily meant to be used by code that needs to work with both language versions.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking') class MyLockingObject(NSObject): __pyobjc_protocols__ = [NSLocking] def lock(self): pass def unlock(self): pass
The class now formally implements the
NSLocking protocol, this can be
verified using the Objective-C introspection methods:
>>> MyLockingObject.pyobjc_classMethods.conformsToProtocol_(NSLocking) 1
This is useful for API’s that require (and check) the implementation of formal protocols.