Source code for psutil

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Copyright (c) 2009, Giampaolo Rodola'. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.

"""psutil is a cross-platform library for retrieving information on
running processes and system utilization (CPU, memory, disks, network)
in Python.
"""

from __future__ import division

import collections
import contextlib
import errno
import functools
import os
import signal
import subprocess
import sys
import time
import traceback
try:
    import pwd
except ImportError:
    pwd = None

from . import _common
from ._common import deprecated_method
from ._common import memoize
from ._common import memoize_when_activated
from ._compat import callable
from ._compat import long
from ._compat import PY3 as _PY3

from ._common import STATUS_DEAD
from ._common import STATUS_DISK_SLEEP
from ._common import STATUS_IDLE  # bsd
from ._common import STATUS_LOCKED
from ._common import STATUS_RUNNING
from ._common import STATUS_SLEEPING
from ._common import STATUS_STOPPED
from ._common import STATUS_TRACING_STOP
from ._common import STATUS_WAITING  # bsd
from ._common import STATUS_WAKING
from ._common import STATUS_ZOMBIE

from ._common import CONN_CLOSE
from ._common import CONN_CLOSE_WAIT
from ._common import CONN_CLOSING
from ._common import CONN_ESTABLISHED
from ._common import CONN_FIN_WAIT1
from ._common import CONN_FIN_WAIT2
from ._common import CONN_LAST_ACK
from ._common import CONN_LISTEN
from ._common import CONN_NONE
from ._common import CONN_SYN_RECV
from ._common import CONN_SYN_SENT
from ._common import CONN_TIME_WAIT
from ._common import NIC_DUPLEX_FULL
from ._common import NIC_DUPLEX_HALF
from ._common import NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN

from ._common import BSD
from ._common import FREEBSD  # NOQA
from ._common import LINUX
from ._common import NETBSD  # NOQA
from ._common import OPENBSD  # NOQA
from ._common import OSX
from ._common import POSIX  # NOQA
from ._common import SUNOS
from ._common import WINDOWS

if LINUX:
    # This is public API and it will be retrieved from _pslinux.py
    # via sys.modules.
    PROCFS_PATH = "/proc"

    from . import _pslinux as _psplatform

    from ._pslinux import IOPRIO_CLASS_BE  # NOQA
    from ._pslinux import IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE  # NOQA
    from ._pslinux import IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE  # NOQA
    from ._pslinux import IOPRIO_CLASS_RT  # NOQA
    # Linux >= 2.6.36
    if _psplatform.HAS_PRLIMIT:
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIM_INFINITY  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_AS  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_CORE  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_CPU  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_DATA  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_FSIZE  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_LOCKS  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_MEMLOCK  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_NOFILE  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_NPROC  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_RSS  # NOQA
        from ._psutil_linux import RLIMIT_STACK  # NOQA
        # Kinda ugly but considerably faster than using hasattr() and
        # setattr() against the module object (we are at import time:
        # speed matters).
        from . import _psutil_linux
        try:
            RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE = _psutil_linux.RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            RLIMIT_NICE = _psutil_linux.RLIMIT_NICE
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            RLIMIT_RTPRIO = _psutil_linux.RLIMIT_RTPRIO
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            RLIMIT_RTTIME = _psutil_linux.RLIMIT_RTTIME
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            RLIMIT_SIGPENDING = _psutil_linux.RLIMIT_SIGPENDING
        except AttributeError:
            pass

elif WINDOWS:
    from . import _pswindows as _psplatform
    from ._psutil_windows import ABOVE_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._psutil_windows import BELOW_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._psutil_windows import HIGH_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._psutil_windows import IDLE_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._psutil_windows import NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._psutil_windows import REALTIME_PRIORITY_CLASS  # NOQA
    from ._pswindows import CONN_DELETE_TCB  # NOQA

elif OSX:
    from . import _psosx as _psplatform

elif BSD:
    from . import _psbsd as _psplatform

elif SUNOS:
    from . import _pssunos as _psplatform
    from ._pssunos import CONN_BOUND  # NOQA
    from ._pssunos import CONN_IDLE  # NOQA

    # This is public writable API which is read from _pslinux.py and
    # _pssunos.py via sys.modules.
    PROCFS_PATH = "/proc"

else:  # pragma: no cover
    raise NotImplementedError('platform %s is not supported' % sys.platform)


__all__ = [
    # exceptions
    "Error", "NoSuchProcess", "ZombieProcess", "AccessDenied",
    "TimeoutExpired",

    # constants
    "version_info", "__version__",

    "STATUS_RUNNING", "STATUS_IDLE", "STATUS_SLEEPING", "STATUS_DISK_SLEEP",
    "STATUS_STOPPED", "STATUS_TRACING_STOP", "STATUS_ZOMBIE", "STATUS_DEAD",
    "STATUS_WAKING", "STATUS_LOCKED", "STATUS_WAITING", "STATUS_LOCKED",

    "CONN_ESTABLISHED", "CONN_SYN_SENT", "CONN_SYN_RECV", "CONN_FIN_WAIT1",
    "CONN_FIN_WAIT2", "CONN_TIME_WAIT", "CONN_CLOSE", "CONN_CLOSE_WAIT",
    "CONN_LAST_ACK", "CONN_LISTEN", "CONN_CLOSING", "CONN_NONE",

    "AF_LINK",

    "NIC_DUPLEX_FULL", "NIC_DUPLEX_HALF", "NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN",

    "POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN", "POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED",

    "BSD", "FREEBSD", "LINUX", "NETBSD", "OPENBSD", "OSX", "POSIX", "SUNOS",
    "WINDOWS",

    # classes
    "Process", "Popen",

    # functions
    "pid_exists", "pids", "process_iter", "wait_procs",             # proc
    "virtual_memory", "swap_memory",                                # memory
    "cpu_times", "cpu_percent", "cpu_times_percent", "cpu_count",   # cpu
    "cpu_stats",  # "cpu_freq",
    "net_io_counters", "net_connections", "net_if_addrs",           # network
    "net_if_stats",
    "disk_io_counters", "disk_partitions", "disk_usage",            # disk
    # "sensors_temperatures", "sensors_battery", "sensors_fans"     # sensors
    "users", "boot_time",                                           # others
]
__all__.extend(_psplatform.__extra__all__)
__author__ = "Giampaolo Rodola'"
__version__ = "5.2.0"
version_info = tuple([int(num) for num in __version__.split('.')])
AF_LINK = _psplatform.AF_LINK
POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED = _common.POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED
POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN = _common.POWER_TIME_UNKNOWN
_TOTAL_PHYMEM = None
_timer = getattr(time, 'monotonic', time.time)


# Sanity check in case the user messed up with psutil installation
# or did something weird with sys.path. In this case we might end
# up importing a python module using a C extension module which
# was compiled for a different version of psutil.
# We want to prevent that by failing sooner rather than later.
# See: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/564
if (int(__version__.replace('.', '')) !=
        getattr(_psplatform.cext, 'version', None)):
    msg = "version conflict: %r C extension module was built for another " \
          "version of psutil" % getattr(_psplatform.cext, "__file__")
    if hasattr(_psplatform.cext, 'version'):
        msg += " (%s instead of %s)" % (
            '.'.join([x for x in str(_psplatform.cext.version)]), __version__)
    else:
        msg += " (different than %s)" % __version__
    msg += "; you may try to 'pip uninstall psutil', manually remove %s" % (
        getattr(_psplatform.cext, "__file__",
                "the existing psutil install directory"))
    msg += " or clean the virtual env somehow, then reinstall"
    raise ImportError(msg)


# =====================================================================
# --- exceptions
# =====================================================================


[docs]class Error(Exception): """Base exception class. All other psutil exceptions inherit from this one. """ def __init__(self, msg=""): Exception.__init__(self, msg) self.msg = msg def __repr__(self): ret = "%s.%s %s" % (self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__, self.msg) return ret.strip() __str__ = __repr__
[docs]class NoSuchProcess(Error): """Exception raised when a process with a certain PID doesn't or no longer exists. """ def __init__(self, pid, name=None, msg=None): Error.__init__(self, msg) self.pid = pid self.name = name self.msg = msg if msg is None: if name: details = "(pid=%s, name=%s)" % (self.pid, repr(self.name)) else: details = "(pid=%s)" % self.pid self.msg = "process no longer exists " + details
[docs]class ZombieProcess(NoSuchProcess): """Exception raised when querying a zombie process. This is raised on OSX, BSD and Solaris only, and not always: depending on the query the OS may be able to succeed anyway. On Linux all zombie processes are querable (hence this is never raised). Windows doesn't have zombie processes. """ def __init__(self, pid, name=None, ppid=None, msg=None): Error.__init__(self, msg) self.pid = pid self.ppid = ppid self.name = name self.msg = msg if msg is None: args = ["pid=%s" % pid] if name: args.append("name=%s" % repr(self.name)) if ppid: args.append("ppid=%s" % self.ppid) details = "(%s)" % ", ".join(args) self.msg = "process still exists but it's a zombie " + details
[docs]class AccessDenied(Error): """Exception raised when permission to perform an action is denied.""" def __init__(self, pid=None, name=None, msg=None): Error.__init__(self, msg) self.pid = pid self.name = name self.msg = msg if msg is None: if (pid is not None) and (name is not None): self.msg = "(pid=%s, name=%s)" % (pid, repr(name)) elif (pid is not None): self.msg = "(pid=%s)" % self.pid else: self.msg = ""
[docs]class TimeoutExpired(Error): """Raised on Process.wait(timeout) if timeout expires and process is still alive. """ def __init__(self, seconds, pid=None, name=None): Error.__init__(self, "timeout after %s seconds" % seconds) self.seconds = seconds self.pid = pid self.name = name if (pid is not None) and (name is not None): self.msg += " (pid=%s, name=%s)" % (pid, repr(name)) elif (pid is not None): self.msg += " (pid=%s)" % self.pid
# push exception classes into platform specific module namespace _psplatform.NoSuchProcess = NoSuchProcess _psplatform.ZombieProcess = ZombieProcess _psplatform.AccessDenied = AccessDenied _psplatform.TimeoutExpired = TimeoutExpired # ===================================================================== # --- Process class # ===================================================================== def _assert_pid_not_reused(fun): """Decorator which raises NoSuchProcess in case a process is no longer running or its PID has been reused. """ @functools.wraps(fun) def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs): if not self.is_running(): raise NoSuchProcess(self.pid, self._name) return fun(self, *args, **kwargs) return wrapper
[docs]class Process(object): """Represents an OS process with the given PID. If PID is omitted current process PID (os.getpid()) is used. Raise NoSuchProcess if PID does not exist. Note that most of the methods of this class do not make sure the PID of the process being queried has been reused over time. That means you might end up retrieving an information referring to another process in case the original one this instance refers to is gone in the meantime. The only exceptions for which process identity is pre-emptively checked and guaranteed are: - parent() - children() - nice() (set) - ionice() (set) - rlimit() (set) - cpu_affinity (set) - suspend() - resume() - send_signal() - terminate() - kill() To prevent this problem for all other methods you can: - use is_running() before querying the process - if you're continuously iterating over a set of Process instances use process_iter() which pre-emptively checks process identity for every yielded instance """ def __init__(self, pid=None): self._init(pid) def _init(self, pid, _ignore_nsp=False): if pid is None: pid = os.getpid() else: if not _PY3 and not isinstance(pid, (int, long)): raise TypeError('pid must be an integer (got %r)' % pid) if pid < 0: raise ValueError('pid must be a positive integer (got %s)' % pid) self._pid = pid self._name = None self._exe = None self._create_time = None self._gone = False self._hash = None self._oneshot_inctx = False # used for caching on Windows only (on POSIX ppid may change) self._ppid = None # platform-specific modules define an _psplatform.Process # implementation class self._proc = _psplatform.Process(pid) self._last_sys_cpu_times = None self._last_proc_cpu_times = None # cache creation time for later use in is_running() method try: self.create_time() except AccessDenied: # We should never get here as AFAIK we're able to get # process creation time on all platforms even as a # limited user. pass except ZombieProcess: # Zombies can still be queried by this class (although # not always) and pids() return them so just go on. pass except NoSuchProcess: if not _ignore_nsp: msg = 'no process found with pid %s' % pid raise NoSuchProcess(pid, None, msg) else: self._gone = True # This pair is supposed to indentify a Process instance # univocally over time (the PID alone is not enough as # it might refer to a process whose PID has been reused). # This will be used later in __eq__() and is_running(). self._ident = (self.pid, self._create_time) def __str__(self): try: pid = self.pid name = repr(self.name()) except ZombieProcess: details = "(pid=%s (zombie))" % self.pid except NoSuchProcess: details = "(pid=%s (terminated))" % self.pid except AccessDenied: details = "(pid=%s)" % (self.pid) else: details = "(pid=%s, name=%s)" % (pid, name) return "%s.%s%s" % (self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__, details) def __repr__(self): return "<%s at %s>" % (self.__str__(), id(self)) def __eq__(self, other): # Test for equality with another Process object based # on PID and creation time. if not isinstance(other, Process): return NotImplemented return self._ident == other._ident def __ne__(self, other): return not self == other def __hash__(self): if self._hash is None: self._hash = hash(self._ident) return self._hash @property def pid(self): """The process PID.""" return self._pid # --- utility methods @contextlib.contextmanager
[docs] def oneshot(self): """Utility context manager which considerably speeds up the retrieval of multiple process information at the same time. Internally different process info (e.g. name, ppid, uids, gids, ...) may be fetched by using the same routine, but only one information is returned and the others are discarded. When using this context manager the internal routine is executed once (in the example below on name()) and the other info are cached. The cache is cleared when exiting the context manager block. The advice is to use this every time you retrieve more than one information about the process. If you're lucky, you'll get a hell of a speedup. >>> import psutil >>> p = psutil.Process() >>> with p.oneshot(): ... p.name() # collect multiple info ... p.cpu_times() # return cached value ... p.cpu_percent() # return cached value ... p.create_time() # return cached value ... >>> """ if self._oneshot_inctx: # NOOP: this covers the use case where the user enters the # context twice. Since as_dict() internally uses oneshot() # I expect that the code below will be a pretty common # "mistake" that the user will make, so let's guard # against that: # # >>> with p.oneshot(): # ... p.as_dict() # ... yield else: self._oneshot_inctx = True try: # cached in case cpu_percent() is used self.cpu_times.cache_activate() # cached in case memory_percent() is used self.memory_info.cache_activate() # cached in case parent() is used self.ppid.cache_activate() # cached in case username() is used if POSIX: self.uids.cache_activate() # specific implementation cache self._proc.oneshot_enter() yield finally: self.cpu_times.cache_deactivate() self.memory_info.cache_deactivate() self.ppid.cache_deactivate() if POSIX: self.uids.cache_deactivate() self._proc.oneshot_exit() self._oneshot_inctx = False
[docs] def as_dict(self, attrs=None, ad_value=None): """Utility method returning process information as a hashable dictionary. If 'attrs' is specified it must be a list of strings reflecting available Process class' attribute names (e.g. ['cpu_times', 'name']) else all public (read only) attributes are assumed. 'ad_value' is the value which gets assigned in case AccessDenied or ZombieProcess exception is raised when retrieving that particular process information. """ valid_names = _as_dict_attrnames if attrs is not None: if not isinstance(attrs, (list, tuple, set, frozenset)): raise TypeError("invalid attrs type %s" % type(attrs)) attrs = set(attrs) invalid_names = attrs - valid_names if invalid_names: raise ValueError("invalid attr name%s %s" % ( "s" if len(invalid_names) > 1 else "", ", ".join(map(repr, invalid_names)))) retdict = dict() ls = attrs or valid_names with self.oneshot(): for name in ls: try: if name == 'pid': ret = self.pid else: meth = getattr(self, name) ret = meth() except (AccessDenied, ZombieProcess): ret = ad_value except NotImplementedError: # in case of not implemented functionality (may happen # on old or exotic systems) we want to crash only if # the user explicitly asked for that particular attr if attrs: raise continue retdict[name] = ret return retdict
[docs] def parent(self): """Return the parent process as a Process object pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. If no parent is known return None. """ ppid = self.ppid() if ppid is not None: ctime = self.create_time() try: parent = Process(ppid) if parent.create_time() <= ctime: return parent # ...else ppid has been reused by another process except NoSuchProcess: pass
[docs] def is_running(self): """Return whether this process is running. It also checks if PID has been reused by another process in which case return False. """ if self._gone: return False try: # Checking if PID is alive is not enough as the PID might # have been reused by another process: we also want to # verify process identity. # Process identity / uniqueness over time is guaranteed by # (PID + creation time) and that is verified in __eq__. return self == Process(self.pid) except ZombieProcess: # We should never get here as it's already handled in # Process.__init__; here just for extra safety. return True except NoSuchProcess: self._gone = True return False
# --- actual API @memoize_when_activated
[docs] def ppid(self): """The process parent PID. On Windows the return value is cached after first call. """ # On POSIX we don't want to cache the ppid as it may unexpectedly # change to 1 (init) in case this process turns into a zombie: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/321 # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/356722/ # XXX should we check creation time here rather than in # Process.parent()? if POSIX: return self._proc.ppid() else: self._ppid = self._ppid or self._proc.ppid() return self._ppid
[docs] def name(self): """The process name. The return value is cached after first call.""" # Process name is only cached on Windows as on POSIX it may # change, see: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/692 if WINDOWS and self._name is not None: return self._name name = self._proc.name() if POSIX and len(name) >= 15: # On UNIX the name gets truncated to the first 15 characters. # If it matches the first part of the cmdline we return that # one instead because it's usually more explicative. # Examples are "gnome-keyring-d" vs. "gnome-keyring-daemon". try: cmdline = self.cmdline() except AccessDenied: pass else: if cmdline: extended_name = os.path.basename(cmdline[0]) if extended_name.startswith(name): name = extended_name self._name = name self._proc._name = name return name
[docs] def exe(self): """The process executable as an absolute path. May also be an empty string. The return value is cached after first call. """ def guess_it(fallback): # try to guess exe from cmdline[0] in absence of a native # exe representation cmdline = self.cmdline() if cmdline and hasattr(os, 'access') and hasattr(os, 'X_OK'): exe = cmdline[0] # the possible exe # Attempt to guess only in case of an absolute path. # It is not safe otherwise as the process might have # changed cwd. if (os.path.isabs(exe) and os.path.isfile(exe) and os.access(exe, os.X_OK)): return exe if isinstance(fallback, AccessDenied): raise fallback return fallback if self._exe is None: try: exe = self._proc.exe() except AccessDenied as err: return guess_it(fallback=err) else: if not exe: # underlying implementation can legitimately return an # empty string; if that's the case we don't want to # raise AD while guessing from the cmdline try: exe = guess_it(fallback=exe) except AccessDenied: pass self._exe = exe return self._exe
[docs] def cmdline(self): """The command line this process has been called with.""" return self._proc.cmdline()
[docs] def status(self): """The process current status as a STATUS_* constant.""" try: return self._proc.status() except ZombieProcess: return STATUS_ZOMBIE
[docs] def username(self): """The name of the user that owns the process. On UNIX this is calculated by using *real* process uid. """ if POSIX: if pwd is None: # might happen if python was installed from sources raise ImportError( "requires pwd module shipped with standard python") real_uid = self.uids().real try: return pwd.getpwuid(real_uid).pw_name except KeyError: # the uid can't be resolved by the system return str(real_uid) else: return self._proc.username()
[docs] def create_time(self): """The process creation time as a floating point number expressed in seconds since the epoch, in UTC. The return value is cached after first call. """ if self._create_time is None: self._create_time = self._proc.create_time() return self._create_time
[docs] def cwd(self): """Process current working directory as an absolute path.""" return self._proc.cwd()
[docs] def nice(self, value=None): """Get or set process niceness (priority).""" if value is None: return self._proc.nice_get() else: if not self.is_running(): raise NoSuchProcess(self.pid, self._name) self._proc.nice_set(value)
if POSIX: @memoize_when_activated
[docs] def uids(self): """Return process UIDs as a (real, effective, saved) namedtuple. """ return self._proc.uids()
[docs] def gids(self): """Return process GIDs as a (real, effective, saved) namedtuple. """ return self._proc.gids()
[docs] def terminal(self): """The terminal associated with this process, if any, else None. """ return self._proc.terminal()
[docs] def num_fds(self): """Return the number of file descriptors opened by this process (POSIX only). """ return self._proc.num_fds()
# Linux, BSD and Windows only if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "io_counters"):
[docs] def io_counters(self): """Return process I/O statistics as a (read_count, write_count, read_bytes, write_bytes) namedtuple. Those are the number of read/write calls performed and the amount of bytes read and written by the process. """ return self._proc.io_counters()
# Linux and Windows >= Vista only if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "ionice_get"):
[docs] def ionice(self, ioclass=None, value=None): """Get or set process I/O niceness (priority). On Linux 'ioclass' is one of the IOPRIO_CLASS_* constants. 'value' is a number which goes from 0 to 7. The higher the value, the lower the I/O priority of the process. On Windows only 'ioclass' is used and it can be set to 2 (normal), 1 (low) or 0 (very low). Available on Linux and Windows > Vista only. """ if ioclass is None: if value is not None: raise ValueError("'ioclass' argument must be specified") return self._proc.ionice_get() else: return self._proc.ionice_set(ioclass, value)
# Linux only if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "rlimit"):
[docs] def rlimit(self, resource, limits=None): """Get or set process resource limits as a (soft, hard) tuple. 'resource' is one of the RLIMIT_* constants. 'limits' is supposed to be a (soft, hard) tuple. See "man prlimit" for further info. Available on Linux only. """ if limits is None: return self._proc.rlimit(resource) else: return self._proc.rlimit(resource, limits)
# Windows, Linux and FreeBSD only if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "cpu_affinity_get"):
[docs] def cpu_affinity(self, cpus=None): """Get or set process CPU affinity. If specified 'cpus' must be a list of CPUs for which you want to set the affinity (e.g. [0, 1]). If an empty list is passed, all egible CPUs are assumed (and set). (Windows, Linux and BSD only). """ # Automatically remove duplicates both on get and # set (for get it's not really necessary, it's # just for extra safety). if cpus is None: return list(set(self._proc.cpu_affinity_get())) else: if not cpus: if hasattr(self._proc, "_get_eligible_cpus"): cpus = self._proc._get_eligible_cpus() else: cpus = tuple(range(len(cpu_times(percpu=True)))) self._proc.cpu_affinity_set(list(set(cpus)))
# Linux, FreeBSD, SunOS if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "cpu_num"):
[docs] def cpu_num(self): """Return what CPU this process is currently running on. The returned number should be <= psutil.cpu_count() and <= len(psutil.cpu_percent(percpu=True)). It may be used in conjunction with psutil.cpu_percent(percpu=True) to observe the system workload distributed across CPUs. """ return self._proc.cpu_num()
# Linux, OSX and Windows only if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "environ"):
[docs] def environ(self): """The environment variables of the process as a dict. Note: this might not reflect changes made after the process started. """ return self._proc.environ()
if WINDOWS: def num_handles(self): """Return the number of handles opened by this process (Windows only). """ return self._proc.num_handles()
[docs] def num_ctx_switches(self): """Return the number of voluntary and involuntary context switches performed by this process. """ return self._proc.num_ctx_switches()
[docs] def num_threads(self): """Return the number of threads used by this process.""" return self._proc.num_threads()
[docs] def threads(self): """Return threads opened by process as a list of (id, user_time, system_time) namedtuples representing thread id and thread CPU times (user/system). On OpenBSD this method requires root access. """ return self._proc.threads()
@_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def children(self, recursive=False): """Return the children of this process as a list of Process instances, pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. If recursive is True return all the parent descendants. Example (A == this process): A ─┐ ├─ B (child) ─┐ │ └─ X (grandchild) ─┐ │ └─ Y (great grandchild) ├─ C (child) └─ D (child) >>> import psutil >>> p = psutil.Process() >>> p.children() B, C, D >>> p.children(recursive=True) B, X, Y, C, D Note that in the example above if process X disappears process Y won't be listed as the reference to process A is lost. """ if hasattr(_psplatform, 'ppid_map'): # Windows only: obtain a {pid:ppid, ...} dict for all running # processes in one shot (faster). ppid_map = _psplatform.ppid_map() else: ppid_map = None ret = [] if not recursive: if ppid_map is None: # 'slow' version, common to all platforms except Windows for p in process_iter(): try: if p.ppid() == self.pid: # if child happens to be older than its parent # (self) it means child's PID has been reused if self.create_time() <= p.create_time(): ret.append(p) except (NoSuchProcess, ZombieProcess): pass else: # pragma: no cover # Windows only (faster) for pid, ppid in ppid_map.items(): if ppid == self.pid: try: child = Process(pid) # if child happens to be older than its parent # (self) it means child's PID has been reused if self.create_time() <= child.create_time(): ret.append(child) except (NoSuchProcess, ZombieProcess): pass else: # construct a dict where 'values' are all the processes # having 'key' as their parent table = collections.defaultdict(list) if ppid_map is None: for p in process_iter(): try: table[p.ppid()].append(p) except (NoSuchProcess, ZombieProcess): pass else: # pragma: no cover for pid, ppid in ppid_map.items(): try: p = Process(pid) table[ppid].append(p) except (NoSuchProcess, ZombieProcess): pass # At this point we have a mapping table where table[self.pid] # are the current process' children. # Below, we look for all descendants recursively, similarly # to a recursive function call. checkpids = [self.pid] for pid in checkpids: for child in table[pid]: try: # if child happens to be older than its parent # (self) it means child's PID has been reused intime = self.create_time() <= child.create_time() except (NoSuchProcess, ZombieProcess): pass else: if intime: ret.append(child) if child.pid not in checkpids: checkpids.append(child.pid) return ret
[docs] def cpu_percent(self, interval=None): """Return a float representing the current process CPU utilization as a percentage. When interval is 0.0 or None (default) compares process times to system CPU times elapsed since last call, returning immediately (non-blocking). That means that the first time this is called it will return a meaningful 0.0 value. When interval is > 0.0 compares process times to system CPU times elapsed before and after the interval (blocking). In this case is recommended for accuracy that this function be called with at least 0.1 seconds between calls. A value > 100.0 can be returned in case of processes running multiple threads on different CPU cores. The returned value is explicitly *not* split evenly between all available logical CPUs. This means that a busy loop process running on a system with 2 logical CPUs will be reported as having 100% CPU utilization instead of 50%. Examples: >>> import psutil >>> p = psutil.Process(os.getpid()) >>> # blocking >>> p.cpu_percent(interval=1) 2.0 >>> # non-blocking (percentage since last call) >>> p.cpu_percent(interval=None) 2.9 >>> """ blocking = interval is not None and interval > 0.0 if interval is not None and interval < 0: raise ValueError("interval is not positive (got %r)" % interval) num_cpus = cpu_count() or 1 def timer(): return _timer() * num_cpus if blocking: st1 = timer() pt1 = self._proc.cpu_times() time.sleep(interval) st2 = timer() pt2 = self._proc.cpu_times() else: st1 = self._last_sys_cpu_times pt1 = self._last_proc_cpu_times st2 = timer() pt2 = self._proc.cpu_times() if st1 is None or pt1 is None: self._last_sys_cpu_times = st2 self._last_proc_cpu_times = pt2 return 0.0 delta_proc = (pt2.user - pt1.user) + (pt2.system - pt1.system) delta_time = st2 - st1 # reset values for next call in case of interval == None self._last_sys_cpu_times = st2 self._last_proc_cpu_times = pt2 try: # This is the utilization split evenly between all CPUs. # E.g. a busy loop process on a 2-CPU-cores system at this # point is reported as 50% instead of 100%. overall_cpus_percent = ((delta_proc / delta_time) * 100) except ZeroDivisionError: # interval was too low return 0.0 else: # Note 1. # in order to emulate "top" we multiply the value for the num # of CPU cores. This way the busy process will be reported as # having 100% (or more) usage. # # Note 2: # taskmgr.exe on Windows differs in that it will show 50% # instead. # # Note #3: # a percentage > 100 is legitimate as it can result from a # process with multiple threads running on different CPU # cores (top does the same), see: # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1032357 # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/474 single_cpu_percent = overall_cpus_percent * num_cpus return round(single_cpu_percent, 1)
@memoize_when_activated
[docs] def cpu_times(self): """Return a (user, system, children_user, children_system) namedtuple representing the accumulated process time, in seconds. This is similar to os.times() but per-process. On OSX and Windows children_user and children_system are always set to 0. """ return self._proc.cpu_times()
@memoize_when_activated
[docs] def memory_info(self): """Return a namedtuple with variable fields depending on the platform, representing memory information about the process. The "portable" fields available on all plaforms are `rss` and `vms`. All numbers are expressed in bytes. """ return self._proc.memory_info()
@deprecated_method(replacement="memory_info")
[docs] def memory_info_ex(self): return self.memory_info()
[docs] def memory_full_info(self): """This method returns the same information as memory_info(), plus, on some platform (Linux, OSX, Windows), also provides additional metrics (USS, PSS and swap). The additional metrics provide a better representation of actual process memory usage. Namely USS is the memory which is unique to a process and which would be freed if the process was terminated right now. It does so by passing through the whole process address. As such it usually requires higher user privileges than memory_info() and is considerably slower. """ return self._proc.memory_full_info()
[docs] def memory_percent(self, memtype="rss"): """Compare process memory to total physical system memory and calculate process memory utilization as a percentage. 'memtype' argument is a string that dictates what type of process memory you want to compare against (defaults to "rss"). The list of available strings can be obtained like this: >>> psutil.Process().memory_info()._fields ('rss', 'vms', 'shared', 'text', 'lib', 'data', 'dirty', 'uss', 'pss') """ valid_types = list(_psplatform.pfullmem._fields) if hasattr(_psplatform, "pfullmem"): valid_types.extend(list(_psplatform.pfullmem._fields)) if memtype not in valid_types: raise ValueError("invalid memtype %r; valid types are %r" % ( memtype, tuple(valid_types))) fun = self.memory_full_info if memtype in ('uss', 'pss', 'swap') else \ self.memory_info metrics = fun() value = getattr(metrics, memtype) # use cached value if available total_phymem = _TOTAL_PHYMEM or virtual_memory().total if not total_phymem > 0: # we should never get here raise ValueError( "can't calculate process memory percent because " "total physical system memory is not positive (%r)" % total_phymem) return (value / float(total_phymem)) * 100
if hasattr(_psplatform.Process, "memory_maps"): # Available everywhere except OpenBSD and NetBSD.
[docs] def memory_maps(self, grouped=True): """Return process' mapped memory regions as a list of namedtuples whose fields are variable depending on the platform. If 'grouped' is True the mapped regions with the same 'path' are grouped together and the different memory fields are summed. If 'grouped' is False every mapped region is shown as a single entity and the namedtuple will also include the mapped region's address space ('addr') and permission set ('perms'). """ it = self._proc.memory_maps() if grouped: d = {} for tupl in it: path = tupl[2] nums = tupl[3:] try: d[path] = map(lambda x, y: x + y, d[path], nums) except KeyError: d[path] = nums nt = _psplatform.pmmap_grouped return [nt(path, *d[path]) for path in d] # NOQA else: nt = _psplatform.pmmap_ext return [nt(*x) for x in it]
[docs] def open_files(self): """Return files opened by process as a list of (path, fd) namedtuples including the absolute file name and file descriptor number. """ return self._proc.open_files()
[docs] def connections(self, kind='inet'): """Return connections opened by process as a list of (fd, family, type, laddr, raddr, status) namedtuples. The 'kind' parameter filters for connections that match the following criteria: Kind Value Connections using inet IPv4 and IPv6 inet4 IPv4 inet6 IPv6 tcp TCP tcp4 TCP over IPv4 tcp6 TCP over IPv6 udp UDP udp4 UDP over IPv4 udp6 UDP over IPv6 unix UNIX socket (both UDP and TCP protocols) all the sum of all the possible families and protocols """ return self._proc.connections(kind)
# --- signals if POSIX: def _send_signal(self, sig): assert not self.pid < 0, self.pid if self.pid == 0: # see "man 2 kill" raise ValueError( "preventing sending signal to process with PID 0 as it " "would affect every process in the process group of the " "calling process (os.getpid()) instead of PID 0") try: os.kill(self.pid, sig) except OSError as err: if err.errno == errno.ESRCH: if OPENBSD and pid_exists(self.pid): # We do this because os.kill() lies in case of # zombie processes. raise ZombieProcess(self.pid, self._name, self._ppid) else: self._gone = True raise NoSuchProcess(self.pid, self._name) if err.errno in (errno.EPERM, errno.EACCES): raise AccessDenied(self.pid, self._name) raise @_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def send_signal(self, sig): """Send a signal to process pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused (see signal module constants) . On Windows only SIGTERM is valid and is treated as an alias for kill(). """ if POSIX: self._send_signal(sig) else: # pragma: no cover if sig == signal.SIGTERM: self._proc.kill() # py >= 2.7 elif sig in (getattr(signal, "CTRL_C_EVENT", object()), getattr(signal, "CTRL_BREAK_EVENT", object())): self._proc.send_signal(sig) else: raise ValueError( "only SIGTERM, CTRL_C_EVENT and CTRL_BREAK_EVENT signals " "are supported on Windows")
@_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def suspend(self): """Suspend process execution with SIGSTOP pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. On Windows this has the effect ot suspending all process threads. """ if POSIX: self._send_signal(signal.SIGSTOP) else: # pragma: no cover self._proc.suspend()
@_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def resume(self): """Resume process execution with SIGCONT pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. On Windows this has the effect of resuming all process threads. """ if POSIX: self._send_signal(signal.SIGCONT) else: # pragma: no cover self._proc.resume()
@_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def terminate(self): """Terminate the process with SIGTERM pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. On Windows this is an alias for kill(). """ if POSIX: self._send_signal(signal.SIGTERM) else: # pragma: no cover self._proc.kill()
@_assert_pid_not_reused
[docs] def kill(self): """Kill the current process with SIGKILL pre-emptively checking whether PID has been reused. """ if POSIX: self._send_signal(signal.SIGKILL) else: # pragma: no cover self._proc.kill()
[docs] def wait(self, timeout=None): """Wait for process to terminate and, if process is a children of os.getpid(), also return its exit code, else None. If the process is already terminated immediately return None instead of raising NoSuchProcess. If timeout (in seconds) is specified and process is still alive raise TimeoutExpired. To wait for multiple Process(es) use psutil.wait_procs(). """ if timeout is not None and not timeout >= 0: raise ValueError("timeout must be a positive integer") return self._proc.wait(timeout)
# ===================================================================== # --- Popen class # =====================================================================
[docs]class Popen(Process): """A more convenient interface to stdlib subprocess.Popen class. It starts a sub process and deals with it exactly as when using subprocess.Popen class but in addition also provides all the properties and methods of psutil.Process class as a unified interface: >>> import psutil >>> from subprocess import PIPE >>> p = psutil.Popen(["python", "-c", "print 'hi'"], stdout=PIPE) >>> p.name() 'python' >>> p.uids() user(real=1000, effective=1000, saved=1000) >>> p.username() 'giampaolo' >>> p.communicate() ('hi\n', None) >>> p.terminate() >>> p.wait(timeout=2) 0 >>> For method names common to both classes such as kill(), terminate() and wait(), psutil.Process implementation takes precedence. Unlike subprocess.Popen this class pre-emptively checks whether PID has been reused on send_signal(), terminate() and kill() so that you don't accidentally terminate another process, fixing http://bugs.python.org/issue6973. For a complete documentation refer to: http://docs.python.org/library/subprocess.html """ def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # Explicitly avoid to raise NoSuchProcess in case the process # spawned by subprocess.Popen terminates too quickly, see: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/193 self.__subproc = subprocess.Popen(*args, **kwargs) self._init(self.__subproc.pid, _ignore_nsp=True) def __dir__(self): return sorted(set(dir(Popen) + dir(subprocess.Popen))) def __enter__(self): if hasattr(self.__subproc, '__enter__'): self.__subproc.__enter__() return self def __exit__(self, *args, **kwargs): if hasattr(self.__subproc, '__exit__'): return self.__subproc.__exit__(*args, **kwargs) else: if self.stdout: self.stdout.close() if self.stderr: self.stderr.close() try: # Flushing a BufferedWriter may raise an error. if self.stdin: self.stdin.close() finally: # Wait for the process to terminate, to avoid zombies. self.wait() def __getattribute__(self, name): try: return object.__getattribute__(self, name) except AttributeError: try: return object.__getattribute__(self.__subproc, name) except AttributeError: raise AttributeError("%s instance has no attribute '%s'" % (self.__class__.__name__, name)) def wait(self, timeout=None): if self.__subproc.returncode is not None: return self.__subproc.returncode ret = super(Popen, self).wait(timeout) self.__subproc.returncode = ret return ret
# The valid attr names which can be processed by Process.as_dict(). _as_dict_attrnames = set( [x for x in dir(Process) if not x.startswith('_') and x not in ['send_signal', 'suspend', 'resume', 'terminate', 'kill', 'wait', 'is_running', 'as_dict', 'parent', 'children', 'rlimit', 'memory_info_ex', 'oneshot']]) # ===================================================================== # --- system processes related functions # =====================================================================
[docs]def pids(): """Return a list of current running PIDs.""" return _psplatform.pids()
[docs]def pid_exists(pid): """Return True if given PID exists in the current process list. This is faster than doing "pid in psutil.pids()" and should be preferred. """ if pid < 0: return False elif pid == 0 and POSIX: # On POSIX we use os.kill() to determine PID existence. # According to "man 2 kill" PID 0 has a special meaning # though: it refers to <<every process in the process # group of the calling process>> and that is not we want # to do here. return pid in pids() else: return _psplatform.pid_exists(pid)
_pmap = {}
[docs]def process_iter(): """Return a generator yielding a Process instance for all running processes. Every new Process instance is only created once and then cached into an internal table which is updated every time this is used. Cached Process instances are checked for identity so that you're safe in case a PID has been reused by another process, in which case the cached instance is updated. The sorting order in which processes are yielded is based on their PIDs. """ def add(pid): proc = Process(pid) _pmap[proc.pid] = proc return proc def remove(pid): _pmap.pop(pid, None) a = set(pids()) b = set(_pmap.keys()) new_pids = a - b gone_pids = b - a for pid in gone_pids: remove(pid) for pid, proc in sorted(list(_pmap.items()) + list(dict.fromkeys(new_pids).items())): try: if proc is None: # new process yield add(pid) else: # use is_running() to check whether PID has been reused by # another process in which case yield a new Process instance if proc.is_running(): yield proc else: yield add(pid) except NoSuchProcess: remove(pid) except AccessDenied: # Process creation time can't be determined hence there's # no way to tell whether the pid of the cached process # has been reused. Just return the cached version. if proc is None and pid in _pmap: try: yield _pmap[pid] except KeyError: # If we get here it is likely that 2 threads were # using process_iter(). pass else: raise
[docs]def wait_procs(procs, timeout=None, callback=None): """Convenience function which waits for a list of processes to terminate. Return a (gone, alive) tuple indicating which processes are gone and which ones are still alive. The gone ones will have a new 'returncode' attribute indicating process exit status (may be None). 'callback' is a function which gets called every time a process terminates (a Process instance is passed as callback argument). Function will return as soon as all processes terminate or when timeout occurs. Typical use case is: - send SIGTERM to a list of processes - give them some time to terminate - send SIGKILL to those ones which are still alive Example: >>> def on_terminate(proc): ... print("process {} terminated".format(proc)) ... >>> for p in procs: ... p.terminate() ... >>> gone, alive = wait_procs(procs, timeout=3, callback=on_terminate) >>> for p in alive: ... p.kill() """ def check_gone(proc, timeout): try: returncode = proc.wait(timeout=timeout) except TimeoutExpired: pass else: if returncode is not None or not proc.is_running(): proc.returncode = returncode gone.add(proc) if callback is not None: callback(proc) if timeout is not None and not timeout >= 0: msg = "timeout must be a positive integer, got %s" % timeout raise ValueError(msg) gone = set() alive = set(procs) if callback is not None and not callable(callback): raise TypeError("callback %r is not a callable" % callable) if timeout is not None: deadline = _timer() + timeout while alive: if timeout is not None and timeout <= 0: break for proc in alive: # Make sure that every complete iteration (all processes) # will last max 1 sec. # We do this because we don't want to wait too long on a # single process: in case it terminates too late other # processes may disappear in the meantime and their PID # reused. max_timeout = 1.0 / len(alive) if timeout is not None: timeout = min((deadline - _timer()), max_timeout) if timeout <= 0: break check_gone(proc, timeout) else: check_gone(proc, max_timeout) alive = alive - gone if alive: # Last attempt over processes survived so far. # timeout == 0 won't make this function wait any further. for proc in alive: check_gone(proc, 0) alive = alive - gone return (list(gone), list(alive))
# ===================================================================== # --- CPU related functions # ===================================================================== @memoize
[docs]def cpu_count(logical=True): """Return the number of logical CPUs in the system (same as os.cpu_count() in Python 3.4). If logical is False return the number of physical cores only (e.g. hyper thread CPUs are excluded). Return None if undetermined. The return value is cached after first call. If desired cache can be cleared like this: >>> psutil.cpu_count.cache_clear() """ if logical: return _psplatform.cpu_count_logical() else: return _psplatform.cpu_count_physical()
[docs]def cpu_times(percpu=False): """Return system-wide CPU times as a namedtuple. Every CPU time represents the seconds the CPU has spent in the given mode. The namedtuple's fields availability varies depending on the platform: - user - system - idle - nice (UNIX) - iowait (Linux) - irq (Linux, FreeBSD) - softirq (Linux) - steal (Linux >= 2.6.11) - guest (Linux >= 2.6.24) - guest_nice (Linux >= 3.2.0) When percpu is True return a list of namedtuples for each CPU. First element of the list refers to first CPU, second element to second CPU and so on. The order of the list is consistent across calls. """ if not percpu: return _psplatform.cpu_times() else: return _psplatform.per_cpu_times()
try: _last_cpu_times = cpu_times() except Exception: # Don't want to crash at import time. _last_cpu_times = None traceback.print_exc() try: _last_per_cpu_times = cpu_times(percpu=True) except Exception: # Don't want to crash at import time. _last_per_cpu_times = None traceback.print_exc() def _cpu_tot_time(times): """Given a cpu_time() ntuple calculates the total CPU time (including idle time). """ tot = sum(times) if LINUX: # On Linux guest times are already accounted in "user" or # "nice" times, so we subtract them from total. # Htop does the same. References: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/940 # http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/178045 # https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/ # 447976ef4fd09b1be88b316d1a81553f1aa7cd07/kernel/sched/ # cputime.c#L158 tot -= getattr(times, "guest", 0) # Linux 2.6.24+ tot -= getattr(times, "guest_nice", 0) # Linux 3.2.0+ return tot def _cpu_busy_time(times): """Given a cpu_time() ntuple calculates the busy CPU time. We do so by subtracting all idle CPU times. """ busy = _cpu_tot_time(times) busy -= times.idle # Linux: "iowait" is time during which the CPU does not do anything # (waits for IO to complete). On Linux IO wait is *not* accounted # in "idle" time so we subtract it. Htop does the same. # References: # https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/ # 447976ef4fd09b1be88b316d1a81553f1aa7cd07/kernel/sched/cputime.c#L244 busy -= getattr(times, "iowait", 0) return busy
[docs]def cpu_percent(interval=None, percpu=False): """Return a float representing the current system-wide CPU utilization as a percentage. When interval is > 0.0 compares system CPU times elapsed before and after the interval (blocking). When interval is 0.0 or None compares system CPU times elapsed since last call or module import, returning immediately (non blocking). That means the first time this is called it will return a meaningless 0.0 value which you should ignore. In this case is recommended for accuracy that this function be called with at least 0.1 seconds between calls. When percpu is True returns a list of floats representing the utilization as a percentage for each CPU. First element of the list refers to first CPU, second element to second CPU and so on. The order of the list is consistent across calls. Examples: >>> # blocking, system-wide >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=1) 2.0 >>> >>> # blocking, per-cpu >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=1, percpu=True) [2.0, 1.0] >>> >>> # non-blocking (percentage since last call) >>> psutil.cpu_percent(interval=None) 2.9 >>> """ global _last_cpu_times global _last_per_cpu_times blocking = interval is not None and interval > 0.0 if interval is not None and interval < 0: raise ValueError("interval is not positive (got %r)" % interval) def calculate(t1, t2): t1_all = _cpu_tot_time(t1) t1_busy = _cpu_busy_time(t1) t2_all = _cpu_tot_time(t2) t2_busy = _cpu_busy_time(t2) # this usually indicates a float precision issue if t2_busy <= t1_busy: return 0.0 busy_delta = t2_busy - t1_busy all_delta = t2_all - t1_all try: busy_perc = (busy_delta / all_delta) * 100 except ZeroDivisionError: return 0.0 else: return round(busy_perc, 1) # system-wide usage if not percpu: if blocking: t1 = cpu_times() time.sleep(interval) else: t1 = _last_cpu_times if t1 is None: # Something bad happened at import time. We'll # get a meaningful result on the next call. See: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/715 t1 = cpu_times() _last_cpu_times = cpu_times() return calculate(t1, _last_cpu_times) # per-cpu usage else: ret = [] if blocking: tot1 = cpu_times(percpu=True) time.sleep(interval) else: tot1 = _last_per_cpu_times if tot1 is None: # Something bad happened at import time. We'll # get a meaningful result on the next call. See: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/715 tot1 = cpu_times(percpu=True) _last_per_cpu_times = cpu_times(percpu=True) for t1, t2 in zip(tot1, _last_per_cpu_times): ret.append(calculate(t1, t2)) return ret
# Use separate global vars for cpu_times_percent() so that it's # independent from cpu_percent() and they can both be used within # the same program. _last_cpu_times_2 = _last_cpu_times _last_per_cpu_times_2 = _last_per_cpu_times
[docs]def cpu_times_percent(interval=None, percpu=False): """Same as cpu_percent() but provides utilization percentages for each specific CPU time as is returned by cpu_times(). For instance, on Linux we'll get: >>> cpu_times_percent() cpupercent(user=4.8, nice=0.0, system=4.8, idle=90.5, iowait=0.0, irq=0.0, softirq=0.0, steal=0.0, guest=0.0, guest_nice=0.0) >>> interval and percpu arguments have the same meaning as in cpu_percent(). """ global _last_cpu_times_2 global _last_per_cpu_times_2 blocking = interval is not None and interval > 0.0 if interval is not None and interval < 0: raise ValueError("interval is not positive (got %r)" % interval) def calculate(t1, t2): nums = [] all_delta = _cpu_tot_time(t2) - _cpu_tot_time(t1) for field in t1._fields: field_delta = getattr(t2, field) - getattr(t1, field) try: field_perc = (100 * field_delta) / all_delta except ZeroDivisionError: field_perc = 0.0 field_perc = round(field_perc, 1) # CPU times are always supposed to increase over time # or at least remain the same and that's because time # cannot go backwards. # Surprisingly sometimes this might not be the case (at # least on Windows and Linux), see: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/392 # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/645 # I really don't know what to do about that except # forcing the value to 0 or 100. if field_perc > 100.0: field_perc = 100.0 # `<=` because `-0.0 == 0.0` evaluates to True elif field_perc <= 0.0: field_perc = 0.0 nums.append(field_perc) return _psplatform.scputimes(*nums) # system-wide usage if not percpu: if blocking: t1 = cpu_times() time.sleep(interval) else: t1 = _last_cpu_times_2 if t1 is None: # Something bad happened at import time. We'll # get a meaningful result on the next call. See: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/715 t1 = cpu_times() _last_cpu_times_2 = cpu_times() return calculate(t1, _last_cpu_times_2) # per-cpu usage else: ret = [] if blocking: tot1 = cpu_times(percpu=True) time.sleep(interval) else: tot1 = _last_per_cpu_times_2 if tot1 is None: # Something bad happened at import time. We'll # get a meaningful result on the next call. See: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/pull/715 tot1 = cpu_times(percpu=True) _last_per_cpu_times_2 = cpu_times(percpu=True) for t1, t2 in zip(tot1, _last_per_cpu_times_2): ret.append(calculate(t1, t2)) return ret
[docs]def cpu_stats(): """Return CPU statistics.""" return _psplatform.cpu_stats()
if hasattr(_psplatform, "cpu_freq"):
[docs] def cpu_freq(percpu=False): """Return CPU frequency as a nameduple including current, min and max frequency expressed in Mhz. If percpu is True and the system supports per-cpu frequency retrieval (Linux only) a list of frequencies is returned for each CPU. If not a list with one element is returned. """ ret = _psplatform.cpu_freq() if percpu: return ret else: num_cpus = float(len(ret)) if num_cpus == 0: return [] elif num_cpus == 1: return ret[0] else: currs, mins, maxs = 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 for cpu in ret: currs += cpu.current mins += cpu.min maxs += cpu.max try: current = currs / num_cpus except ZeroDivisionError: current = 0.0 try: min_ = mins / num_cpus except ZeroDivisionError: min_ = 0.0 try: max_ = maxs / num_cpus except ZeroDivisionError: max_ = 0.0 return _common.scpufreq(current, min_, max_)
__all__.append("cpu_freq") # ===================================================================== # --- system memory related functions # =====================================================================
[docs]def virtual_memory(): """Return statistics about system memory usage as a namedtuple including the following fields, expressed in bytes: - total: total physical memory available. - available: the memory that can be given instantly to processes without the system going into swap. This is calculated by summing different memory values depending on the platform and it is supposed to be used to monitor actual memory usage in a cross platform fashion. - percent: the percentage usage calculated as (total - available) / total * 100 - used: memory used, calculated differently depending on the platform and designed for informational purposes only: OSX: active + inactive + wired BSD: active + wired + cached LINUX: total - free - free: memory not being used at all (zeroed) that is readily available; note that this doesn't reflect the actual memory available (use 'available' instead) Platform-specific fields: - active (UNIX): memory currently in use or very recently used, and so it is in RAM. - inactive (UNIX): memory that is marked as not used. - buffers (BSD, Linux): cache for things like file system metadata. - cached (BSD, OSX): cache for various things. - wired (OSX, BSD): memory that is marked to always stay in RAM. It is never moved to disk. - shared (BSD): memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple processes. The sum of 'used' and 'available' does not necessarily equal total. On Windows 'available' and 'free' are the same. """ global _TOTAL_PHYMEM ret = _psplatform.virtual_memory() # cached for later use in Process.memory_percent() _TOTAL_PHYMEM = ret.total return ret
[docs]def swap_memory(): """Return system swap memory statistics as a namedtuple including the following fields: - total: total swap memory in bytes - used: used swap memory in bytes - free: free swap memory in bytes - percent: the percentage usage - sin: no. of bytes the system has swapped in from disk (cumulative) - sout: no. of bytes the system has swapped out from disk (cumulative) 'sin' and 'sout' on Windows are meaningless and always set to 0. """ return _psplatform.swap_memory()
# ===================================================================== # --- disks/paritions related functions # =====================================================================
[docs]def disk_usage(path): """Return disk usage statistics about the given path as a namedtuple including total, used and free space expressed in bytes plus the percentage usage. """ return _psplatform.disk_usage(path)
[docs]def disk_partitions(all=False): """Return mounted partitions as a list of (device, mountpoint, fstype, opts) namedtuple. 'opts' field is a raw string separated by commas indicating mount options which may vary depending on the platform. If "all" parameter is False return physical devices only and ignore all others. """ return _psplatform.disk_partitions(all)
[docs]def disk_io_counters(perdisk=False): """Return system disk I/O statistics as a namedtuple including the following fields: - read_count: number of reads - write_count: number of writes - read_bytes: number of bytes read - write_bytes: number of bytes written - read_time: time spent reading from disk (in milliseconds) - write_time: time spent writing to disk (in milliseconds) If perdisk is True return the same information for every physical disk installed on the system as a dictionary with partition names as the keys and the namedtuple described above as the values. On recent Windows versions 'diskperf -y' command may need to be executed first otherwise this function won't find any disk. """ rawdict = _psplatform.disk_io_counters() if not rawdict: raise RuntimeError("couldn't find any physical disk") nt = getattr(_psplatform, "sdiskio", _common.sdiskio) if perdisk: for disk, fields in rawdict.items(): rawdict[disk] = nt(*fields) return rawdict else: return nt(*[sum(x) for x in zip(*rawdict.values())])
# ===================================================================== # --- network related functions # =====================================================================
[docs]def net_io_counters(pernic=False): """Return network I/O statistics as a namedtuple including the following fields: - bytes_sent: number of bytes sent - bytes_recv: number of bytes received - packets_sent: number of packets sent - packets_recv: number of packets received - errin: total number of errors while receiving - errout: total number of errors while sending - dropin: total number of incoming packets which were dropped - dropout: total number of outgoing packets which were dropped (always 0 on OSX and BSD) If pernic is True return the same information for every network interface installed on the system as a dictionary with network interface names as the keys and the namedtuple described above as the values. """ rawdict = _psplatform.net_io_counters() if not rawdict: raise RuntimeError("couldn't find any network interface") if pernic: for nic, fields in rawdict.items(): rawdict[nic] = _common.snetio(*fields) return rawdict else: return _common.snetio(*[sum(x) for x in zip(*rawdict.values())])
[docs]def net_connections(kind='inet'): """Return system-wide connections as a list of (fd, family, type, laddr, raddr, status, pid) namedtuples. In case of limited privileges 'fd' and 'pid' may be set to -1 and None respectively. The 'kind' parameter filters for connections that fit the following criteria: Kind Value Connections using inet IPv4 and IPv6 inet4 IPv4 inet6 IPv6 tcp TCP tcp4 TCP over IPv4 tcp6 TCP over IPv6 udp UDP udp4 UDP over IPv4 udp6 UDP over IPv6 unix UNIX socket (both UDP and TCP protocols) all the sum of all the possible families and protocols On OSX this function requires root privileges. """ return _psplatform.net_connections(kind)
[docs]def net_if_addrs(): """Return the addresses associated to each NIC (network interface card) installed on the system as a dictionary whose keys are the NIC names and value is a list of namedtuples for each address assigned to the NIC. Each namedtuple includes 5 fields: - family - address - netmask - broadcast - ptp 'family' can be either socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6 or psutil.AF_LINK, which refers to a MAC address. 'address' is the primary address and it is always set. 'netmask' and 'broadcast' and 'ptp' may be None. 'ptp' stands for "point to point" and references the destination address on a point to point interface (typically a VPN). 'broadcast' and 'ptp' are mutually exclusive. Note: you can have more than one address of the same family associated with each interface. """ has_enums = sys.version_info >= (3, 4) if has_enums: import socket rawlist = _psplatform.net_if_addrs() rawlist.sort(key=lambda x: x[1]) # sort by family ret = collections.defaultdict(list) for name, fam, addr, mask, broadcast, ptp in rawlist: if has_enums: try: fam = socket.AddressFamily(fam) except ValueError: if WINDOWS and fam == -1: fam = _psplatform.AF_LINK elif (hasattr(_psplatform, "AF_LINK") and _psplatform.AF_LINK == fam): # Linux defines AF_LINK as an alias for AF_PACKET. # We re-set the family here so that repr(family) # will show AF_LINK rather than AF_PACKET fam = _psplatform.AF_LINK if fam == _psplatform.AF_LINK: # The underlying C function may return an incomplete MAC # address in which case we fill it with null bytes, see: # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/786 separator = ":" if POSIX else "-" while addr.count(separator) < 5: addr += "%s00" % separator ret[name].append(_common.snic(fam, addr, mask, broadcast, ptp)) return dict(ret)
[docs]def net_if_stats(): """Return information about each NIC (network interface card) installed on the system as a dictionary whose keys are the NIC names and value is a namedtuple with the following fields: - isup: whether the interface is up (bool) - duplex: can be either NIC_DUPLEX_FULL, NIC_DUPLEX_HALF or NIC_DUPLEX_UNKNOWN - speed: the NIC speed expressed in mega bits (MB); if it can't be determined (e.g. 'localhost') it will be set to 0. - mtu: the maximum transmission unit expressed in bytes. """ return _psplatform.net_if_stats()
# ===================================================================== # --- sensors # ===================================================================== # Linux if hasattr(_psplatform, "sensors_temperatures"):
[docs] def sensors_temperatures(fahrenheit=False): """Return hardware temperatures. Each entry is a namedtuple representing a certain hardware sensor (it may be a CPU, an hard disk or something else, depending on the OS and its configuration). All temperatures are expressed in celsius unless *fahrenheit* is set to True. """ def to_fahrenheit(n): return (float(n) * 9 / 5) + 32 ret = collections.defaultdict(list) rawdict = _psplatform.sensors_temperatures() for name, values in rawdict.items(): while values: label, current, high, critical = values.pop(0) if fahrenheit: current = to_fahrenheit(current) if high is not None: high = to_fahrenheit(high) if critical is not None: critical = to_fahrenheit(critical) if high and not critical: critical = high elif critical and not high: high = critical ret[name].append( _common.shwtemp(label, current, high, critical)) return dict(ret)
__all__.append("sensors_temperatures") # Linux if hasattr(_psplatform, "sensors_fans"):
[docs] def sensors_fans(): """Return fans speed. Each entry is a namedtuple representing a certain hardware sensor. All speed are expressed in RPM (rounds per minute). """ return _psplatform.sensors_fans()
__all__.append("sensors_fans") # Linux, Windows, FreeBSD if hasattr(_psplatform, "sensors_battery"):
[docs] def sensors_battery(): """Return battery information. If no battery is installed returns None. - percent: battery power left as a percentage. - secsleft: a rough approximation of how many seconds are left before the battery runs out of power. May be POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED or POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED. - power_plugged: True if the AC power cable is connected. """ return _psplatform.sensors_battery()
__all__.append("sensors_battery") # ===================================================================== # --- other system related functions # =====================================================================
[docs]def boot_time(): """Return the system boot time expressed in seconds since the epoch.""" # Note: we are not caching this because it is subject to # system clock updates. return _psplatform.boot_time()
[docs]def users(): """Return users currently connected on the system as a list of namedtuples including the following fields. - user: the name of the user - terminal: the tty or pseudo-tty associated with the user, if any. - host: the host name associated with the entry, if any. - started: the creation time as a floating point number expressed in seconds since the epoch. """ return _psplatform.users()
# ===================================================================== # --- Windows services # ===================================================================== if WINDOWS: def win_service_iter(): """Return a generator yielding a WindowsService instance for all Windows services installed. """ return _psplatform.win_service_iter() def win_service_get(name): """Get a Windows service by name. Raise NoSuchProcess if no service with such name exists. """ return _psplatform.win_service_get(name) # ===================================================================== def test(): # pragma: no cover """List info of all currently running processes emulating ps aux output. """ import datetime today_day = datetime.date.today() templ = "%-10s %5s %4s %7s %7s %-13s %5s %7s %s" attrs = ['pid', 'memory_percent', 'name', 'cpu_times', 'create_time', 'memory_info'] if POSIX: attrs.append('uids') attrs.append('terminal') print(templ % ("USER", "PID", "%MEM", "VSZ", "RSS", "TTY", "START", "TIME", "COMMAND")) for p in process_iter(): try: pinfo = p.as_dict(attrs, ad_value='') except NoSuchProcess: pass else: if pinfo['create_time']: ctime = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(pinfo['create_time']) if ctime.date() == today_day: ctime = ctime.strftime("%H:%M") else: ctime = ctime.strftime("%b%d") else: ctime = '' cputime = time.strftime("%M:%S", time.localtime(sum(pinfo['cpu_times']))) try: user = p.username() except Error: user = '' if WINDOWS and '\\' in user: user = user.split('\\')[1] vms = pinfo['memory_info'] and \ int(pinfo['memory_info'].vms / 1024) or '?' rss = pinfo['memory_info'] and \ int(pinfo['memory_info'].rss / 1024) or '?' memp = pinfo['memory_percent'] and \ round(pinfo['memory_percent'], 1) or '?' print(templ % ( user[:10], pinfo['pid'], memp, vms, rss, pinfo.get('terminal', '') or '?', ctime, cputime, pinfo['name'].strip() or '?')) del memoize, memoize_when_activated, division, deprecated_method if sys.version_info[0] < 3: del num, x if __name__ == "__main__": test()