Source code for nengo.dists

from __future__ import absolute_import
import numpy as np

from nengo.exceptions import ValidationError
from nengo.params import (BoolParam, IntParam, NdarrayParam, NumberParam,
                          Parameter, Unconfigurable, FrozenObject)
import nengo.utils.numpy as npext

[docs]class Distribution(FrozenObject): """A base class for probability distributions. The only thing that a probabilities distribution need to define is a `.sample` method. This base class ensures that all distributions accept the same arguments for the sample function. """ def _sample_shape(self, n, d=None): """Returns output shape for sample method.""" return (n,) if d is None else (n, d)
[docs] def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): """Samples the distribution. Parameters ---------- n : int Number samples to take. d : int or None, optional (Default: None) The number of dimensions to return. If this is an int, the return value will be of shape ``(n, d)``. If None, the return value will be of shape ``(n,)``. rng : `numpy.random.RandomState`, optional Random number generator state. Returns ------- samples : (n,) or (n, d) array_like Samples as a 1d or 2d array depending on ``d``. The second dimension enumerates the dimensions of the process. """ raise NotImplementedError("Distributions should implement sample.")
[docs]class PDF(Distribution): """An arbitrary distribution from a PDF. Parameters ---------- x : vector_like (n,) Values of the points to sample from (interpolated). p : vector_like (n,) Probabilities of the `x` points. """ x = NdarrayParam('x', shape='*') p = NdarrayParam('p', shape='*') def __init__(self, x, p): super(PDF, self).__init__() psum = np.sum(p) if np.abs(psum - 1) > 1e-8: raise ValidationError( "PDF must sum to one (sums to %f)" % psum, attr='p', obj=self) self.x = x self.p = p if len(self.x) != len(self.p): raise ValidationError( "`x` and `p` must be the same length", attr='p', obj=self) # make cumsum = [0] + cumsum, cdf = 0.5 * (cumsum[:-1] + cumsum[1:]) cumsum = np.cumsum(p) cumsum *= 0.5 cumsum[1:] = cumsum[:-1] + cumsum[1:] self.cdf = cumsum def __repr__(self): return "PDF(x=%r, p=%r)" % (self.x, self.p) def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(n, d) return np.interp(rng.uniform(size=shape), self.cdf, self.x)
[docs]class Uniform(Distribution): """A uniform distribution. It's equally likely to get any scalar between ``low`` and ``high``. Note that the order of ``low`` and ``high`` doesn't matter; if ``low < high`` this will still work, and ``low`` will still be a closed interval while ``high`` is open. Parameters ---------- low : Number The closed lower bound of the uniform distribution; samples >= low high : Number The open upper bound of the uniform distribution; samples < high integer : boolean, optional (Default: False) If true, sample from a uniform distribution of integers. In this case, low and high should be integers. """ low = NumberParam('low') high = NumberParam('high') integer = BoolParam('integer') def __init__(self, low, high, integer=False): super(Uniform, self).__init__() self.low = low self.high = high self.integer = integer def __repr__(self): return "Uniform(low=%r, high=%r%s)" % ( self.low, self.high, ", integer=True" if self.integer else "") def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(n, d) if self.integer: return rng.randint(low=self.low, high=self.high, size=shape) else: return rng.uniform(low=self.low, high=self.high, size=shape)
[docs]class Gaussian(Distribution): """A Gaussian distribution. This represents a bell-curve centred at ``mean`` and with spread represented by the standard deviation, ``std``. Parameters ---------- mean : Number The mean of the Gaussian. std : Number The standard deviation of the Gaussian. Raises ------ ValidationError if std is <= 0 """ mean = NumberParam('mean') std = NumberParam('std', low=0, low_open=True) def __init__(self, mean, std): super(Gaussian, self).__init__() self.mean = mean self.std = std def __repr__(self): return "Gaussian(mean=%r, std=%r)" % (self.mean, self.std) def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(n, d) return rng.normal(loc=self.mean, scale=self.std, size=shape)
[docs]class Exponential(Distribution): """An exponential distribution (optionally with high values clipped). If ``high`` is left to its default value of infinity, this is a standard exponential distribution. If ``high`` is set, then any sampled values at or above ``high`` will be clipped so they are slightly below ``high``. This is useful for thresholding and, by extension, `.networks.AssociativeMemory`. The probability distribution function (PDF) is given by:: | 0 if x < shift p(x) = | 1/scale * exp(-(x - shift)/scale) if x >= shift and x < high | n if x == high - eps | 0 if x >= high where `n` is such that the PDF integrates to one, and `eps` is an infintesimally small number such that samples of `x` are strictly less than `high` (in practice, `eps` depends on the floating point precision). Parameters ---------- scale : float The scale parameter (inverse of the rate parameter lambda). Larger values make the distribution narrower (sharper peak). shift : float, optional (Default: 0) Amount to shift the distribution by. There will be no values smaller than this shift when sampling from the distribution. high : float, optional (Default: np.inf) All values larger than or equal to this value will be clipped to slightly less than this value. """ scale = NumberParam('scale', low=0, low_open=True) shift = NumberParam('shift') high = NumberParam('high') def __init__(self, scale, shift=0., high=np.inf): super(Exponential, self).__init__() self.scale = scale self.shift = shift self.high = high def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(n, d) x = rng.exponential(self.scale, shape) + self.shift high = np.nextafter(self.high, np.asarray(-np.inf, dtype=x.dtype)) return np.clip(x, self.shift, high)
[docs]class UniformHypersphere(Distribution): """Uniform distribution on or in an n-dimensional unit hypersphere. Sample points are uniformly distibuted across the volume (default) or surface of an n-dimensional unit hypersphere. Parameters ---------- surface : bool, optional (Default: False) Whether sample points should be distributed uniformly over the surface of the hyperphere (True), or within the hypersphere (False). """ surface = BoolParam('surface') def __init__(self, surface=False): super(UniformHypersphere, self).__init__() self.surface = surface def __repr__(self): return "UniformHypersphere(%s)" % ( "surface=True" if self.surface else "") def sample(self, n, d, rng=np.random): if d is None or d < 1: # check this, since other dists allow d = None raise ValidationError("Dimensions must be a positive integer", 'd') samples = rng.randn(n, d) samples /= npext.norm(samples, axis=1, keepdims=True) if self.surface: return samples # Generate magnitudes for vectors from uniform distribution. # The (1 / d) exponent ensures that samples are uniformly distributed # in n-space and not all bunched up at the centre of the sphere. samples *= rng.rand(n, 1) ** (1.0 / d) return samples
[docs]class Choice(Distribution): """Discrete distribution across a set of possible values. The same as `numpy.random.choice`, except can take vector or matrix values for the choices. Parameters ---------- options : (N, ...) array_like The options (choices) to choose between. The choice is always done along the first axis, so if `options` is a matrix, the options are the rows of that matrix. weights : (N,) array_like, optional (Default: None) Weights controlling the probability of selecting each option. Will automatically be normalized. If None, weights be uniformly distributed. """ options = NdarrayParam('options', shape=('*', '...')) weights = NdarrayParam('weights', shape=('*'), optional=True) def __init__(self, options, weights=None): super(Choice, self).__init__() self.options = options self.weights = weights weights = (np.ones(len(self.options)) if self.weights is None else self.weights) if len(weights) != len(self.options): raise ValidationError( "Number of weights (%d) must match number of options (%d)" % (len(weights), len(self.options)), attr='weights', obj=self) if not all(weights >= 0): raise ValidationError("All weights must be non-negative", attr='weights', obj=self) total = float(weights.sum()) if total <= 0: raise ValidationError("Sum of weights must be positive (got %f)" % total, attr='weights', obj=self) self.p = weights / total def __repr__(self): return "Choice(options=%r%s)" % ( self.options, "" if self.weights is None else ", weights=%r" % self.weights) @property def dimensions(self): return[1:]) def sample(self, n, d=None, rng=np.random): if d is not None and self.dimensions != d: raise ValidationError("Options must be of dimensionality %d " "(got %d)" % (d, self.dimensions), attr='options', obj=self) i = np.searchsorted(np.cumsum(self.p), rng.rand(n)) return self.options[i]
[docs]class SqrtBeta(Distribution): """Distribution of the square root of a Beta distributed random variable. Given ``n + m`` dimensional random unit vectors, the length of subvectors with ``m`` elements will be distributed according to this distribution. Parameters ---------- n: int Number of subvectors. m: int, optional (Default: 1) Length of each subvector. See also -------- nengo.dists.SubvectorLength """ n = IntParam('n', low=0) m = IntParam('m', low=0) def __init__(self, n, m=1): super(SqrtBeta, self).__init__() self.n = n self.m = m def __repr__(self): return "%s(n=%r, m=%r)" % (type(self).__name__, self.n, self.m) def sample(self, num, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(num, d) return np.sqrt(rng.beta(self.m / 2.0, self.n / 2.0, size=shape))
[docs] def cdf(self, x): """Cumulative distribution function. .. note:: Requires SciPy. Parameters ---------- x : array_like Evaluation points in [0, 1]. Returns ------- cdf : array_like Probability that `X <= x`. """ from scipy.special import betainc sq_x = x * x return np.where( sq_x < 1., betainc(self.m / 2.0, self.n / 2.0, sq_x), np.ones_like(x))
[docs] def pdf(self, x): """Probability distribution function. .. note:: Requires SciPy. Parameters ---------- x : array_like Evaluation points in [0, 1]. Returns ------- pdf : array_like Probability density at ``x``. """ from scipy.special import beta return (2 / beta(self.m / 2.0, self.n / 2.0) * x ** (self.m - 1) * (1 - x * x) ** (self.n / 2.0 - 1))
[docs] def ppf(self, y): """Percent point function (inverse cumulative distribution). .. note:: Requires SciPy. Parameters ---------- y : array_like Cumulative probabilities in [0, 1]. Returns ------- ppf : array_like Evaluation points ``x`` in [0, 1] such that ``P(X <= x) = y``. """ from scipy.special import betaincinv sq_x = betaincinv(self.m / 2.0, self.n / 2.0, y) return np.sqrt(sq_x)
[docs]class SubvectorLength(SqrtBeta): """Distribution of the length of a subvectors of a unit vector. Parameters ---------- dimensions : int Dimensionality of the complete unit vector. subdimensions : int, optional (Default: 1) Dimensionality of the subvector. See also -------- nengo.dists.SqrtBeta """ def __init__(self, dimensions, subdimensions=1): super(SubvectorLength, self).__init__( dimensions - subdimensions, subdimensions) def __repr__(self): return "%s(%r, subdimensions=%r)" % ( type(self).__name__, self.n + self.m, self.m)
[docs]class CosineSimilarity(SubvectorLength): """Distribution of the cosine of the angle between two random vectors. The "cosine similarity" is the cosine of the angle between two vectors, which is equal to the dot product of the vectors, divided by the L2-norms of the individual vectors. When these vectors are unit length, this is then simply the distribution of their dot product. This is also equivalent to the distribution of a single coefficient from a unit vector (a single dimension of ``UniformHypersphere(surface=True)``). This can be used to calculate an intercept ``c = ppf(1 - p)`` such that ``dot(u, v) >= c`` with probability ``p``, for random unit vectors ``u`` and ``v``. In other words, a neuron with intercept ``ppf(1 - p)`` will fire with probability ``p`` for a random unit length input. Parameters ---------- dimensions: int Dimensionality of the complete unit vector. See also -------- nengo.dists.SqrtBeta """ def __init__(self, dimensions): super(CosineSimilarity, self).__init__(dimensions) def sample(self, num, d=None, rng=np.random): shape = self._sample_shape(num, d) sign = Choice((1, -1)).sample(, rng=rng).reshape(*shape) return sign * super(CosineSimilarity, self).sample(num, d, rng=rng) def cdf(self, x): return (super(CosineSimilarity, self).cdf(x) * np.sign(x) + 1) / 2.0 def pdf(self, x): return super(CosineSimilarity, self).pdf(x) / 2.0 def ppf(self, y): x = super(CosineSimilarity, self).ppf(abs(y*2 - 1)) return np.where(y > 0.5, x, -x)
class DistributionParam(Parameter): """A Distribution.""" equatable = True def validate(self, instance, dist): if dist is not None and not isinstance(dist, Distribution): raise ValidationError("'%s' is not a Distribution type" % dist,, obj=instance) super(DistributionParam, self).validate(instance, dist) class DistOrArrayParam(NdarrayParam): """Can be a Distribution or samples from a distribution.""" def __init__(self, name, default=Unconfigurable, sample_shape=None, optional=False, readonly=None): super(DistOrArrayParam, self).__init__( name, default, sample_shape, optional, readonly) def validate(self, instance, distorarray): if isinstance(distorarray, Distribution): Parameter.validate(self, instance, distorarray) return distorarray return super(DistOrArrayParam, self).validate(instance, distorarray)
[docs]def get_samples(dist_or_samples, n, d=None, rng=np.random): """Convenience function to sample a distribution or return samples. Use this function in situations where you accept an argument that could be a distribution, or could be an ``array_like`` of samples. Examples -------- >>> def mean(values, n=100): ... samples = get_samples(values, n=n) ... return np.mean(samples) >>> mean([1, 2, 3, 4]) 2.5 >>> mean(nengo.dists.Gaussian(0, 1)) 0.057277898442269548 Parameters ---------- dist_or_samples : `.Distribution` or (n, d) array_like Source of the samples to be returned. n : int Number samples to take. d : int or None, optional (Default: None) The number of dimensions to return. rng : RandomState, optional (Default: np.random) Random number generator. Returns ------- samples : (n, d) array_like """ if isinstance(dist_or_samples, Distribution): return dist_or_samples.sample(n, d=d, rng=rng) return np.array(dist_or_samples)