Known Issues

  • validation is not complete. Properties using calc() for example will be reported invalid but may well be valid. They are wellformed however and will be parsed and serialized properly.

  • comments may not survive parsing in all cases

  • CSSStyleSheet.cssText is a serialized byte string (not unicode string) currently. This may change in the future.

  • CSS2Properties not implemented completely (setting a shorthand property does not set related properties like setting margin does not set margin-left etc). Also the return values are not as defined in the specification as no normalizing is done yet. Prefer to use style['property'] over

  • The seq attribute of most classes does not hinder you to add invalid items. It will probably become readonly. Never write to it!

    Content of ``seq`` will most likely change completely, seq is more of an internal property and should not be used in client code yet

  • although cssutils tries to preserve CSS hacks not all are (and some - mainly syntactically invalid ones - will probably never be). The following hacks are known to not be preserved:

    star hack (without any whitespace)

    *html syntactically invalid

    star7 hack (without any whitespace)

    html*#test-span (IMHO invalidated by the missing WS between html and “*”)

    The main problem for cssutils users is that some stylesheets in the wild are not parsable without loosing some information, a pretty print for these sheets is simply not possible with cssutils (actually with hardly any css parser...).

    Generally syntactically valid (wellformed) stylesheets should be preserved completely (otherwise it will be a bug in cssutils itself). Invalid stylesheets will probably loose some information like to above *html hack. Most of these hacks may be rewritten while still be working, e.g. * html should work same to *html. Until cssutils 0.9.5b2 the invalid IE-specific CSS hack using $propertyname was preserved but its usage was already discouraged (and if e.g. specifying color and $color these properties are not the same for cssutils (but are for IE...). These kind of invalid hacks are not kept during parsing anymore since cssutils 0.9.5b3! In almost any case it is possible to use at least syntactically valid CSS while still working around different browser implementations.

  • when PyXML is installed not all tests may run through (see issue #34 for details) as PyXMLs implementation of xml.dom.DOMException differs from the default (minidom and I guess others) implemtation. Nothing really to worry about...

Latest Stable Version

1.0 131215 (1.0 only cause I was tired of the 0.9.x releases ;)

  • EXPERIMENTAL: Variable references may have a fallback value now (as implemented in Firefox 29). It is available as CSSVariable.fallback and example are:

    bottom: var(b);
    color: var(theme-colour-1, rgb(14,14,14));
    left: var(L, 1px);
    z-index: var(L, 1);
    top: var(T, calc( 2 * 1px ));
    background: var(U, url(example.png));
    border-color: var(C, #f00)
  • FEATURE: (issue #37) Implemented parsing of CSSCalc values. General syntax is checked but not if operators in calc are actually the right kind like DIMENSION * DIMENSION. Also Values using calc do not validate in cssutils but are actually valid.

  • FIXED issue #20 and #35 (Test fail CSSParser.parseUrl() error with Python 3.3)

  • FIXED issue #21: (almost all) deprecation warning in Py 3.3 fixed.

  • FIXED issue #30 (Test failed)

  • FIXED issue #33 (well kinda): Added that cssutils is not threadsafe!

  • FIXED issue #34: More complext MediaQueries should be parsable now. A few slight changes in behavior are:
    • xml.dom.SyntaxErr raised instead of xml.dom.InvalidCharacterErr for an unknown media type
    • removed handheld media type special case (for old Opera).

Archived Versions

0.9.10 130331
  • BUGFIX: False HASH color values like #xyz were not being handled properly (thanks to Teruaki Koizumi)
  • Fixed issue #23: Tests do work properly in newer Python (>2.7.1?) version now, old versions will report error. Before this was the other way round but this makes more sense probably
  • Fixed issue #24: rgba color values did not validate properly
  • (Jason R. Coombs) Fixed issue #25: Cssutils installs “tests” package
  • Fixed issue #27: Small magnitude float values serialized incorrectly
  • Fixed issue #28: Standalone semicolons in CSSStyleDeclaration is now simply stripped and does not remove directly following property too
0.9.10b1 120428
  • REGRESSION: Valid profiles reported by validation may not be right but as these hardly say anything in the real world anyway the advancements in the following bugfixes are probably worth this. Profiles.validateWithProfile currently not working but should be hardly used anyway. As a workaround remove all profiles and add just the ones you want to use for your application
  • BUGFIX: Profiles have been updated. Multiple profiles can be added via addProfiles and this is preferred to adding separate profiles with addProfile. Profiles do check for updated macros now so that e.g. CSS3 Colors defined in a different profile are valid for all properties defined before. This may lead to a reset of all properties and so may be an extremely expensive operation.
  • BUGFIX: font-family names in profile CSS3_FONTS seem to have been defined wrongly. Family names containing spaces are valid now, even without quotes.
  • BUGFIX: for Python 2.5 compatibility (thanks @Jason)
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added all X11 color names and corresponding RGBA values
0.9.9 final 120131
  • FEATURE: Implemented API for MarginRule objects inside CSSPageRule, see You can also use e.g. CSSPageRule['@top-left'] to retrieve the MarginRule it it is set etc. All dict like methods should be there. If a margin is set twice or more all properties are merged into a single margin rule. Double set properties are all kept though (see below).

  • FEATURE: parseStyle() has optional parameter validate=False now too to disable validation (default is always True).

  • FEATURE: CSSStyleDeclaration.setProperty has new option replace=True. if True (DEFAULT) the given property will replace a present property. If False a new property will be added always. The difference to normalize is that two or more properties with the same name may be set, useful for e.g. stuff like:

    background: red;
    background: rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.5);

    which defines the same property but only capable UAs use the last property value, older ones use the first value.

  • CHANGE: @rules attribute atkeyword value is now normalized. The actual keyword (example @IMPorT) is kept and is optionally reserialized but in the example atkeyword == '@import'
  • BUGFIX: ‘auto’ is now an invalid CSSPageRule pagename.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed issue for GoogleAppEngine (GAE) which somehow handles codecs differently. parseUrl should work now.


0.9.8 final 111210
  • FEATURE: Feature Request (#4) to be able to disable validation of a stylesheet has been implemented. Add Parameter validate=False for parsing.
  • IMPROVEMENT: parseStyle moved to CSSParser, thanks to Simon Sapin
0.9.8a3 110727
  • BUGFIX: Fixed validation of size property (thanks to Simon Sapin)
    • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #55 (thanks to Simon Sapin): outline-color property was missing from validation.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed resolution of encoding detection of a stylesheet which did not use @charset in certain circumstances (mainly when imported sheets use different encoding than importing one which should be quite rare actually).

  • FEATURE: Added URIValue.absoluteUri (thanks to Simon Sapin)
  • FEATURE: Issue #53 feature request: Added new Preference option cssutils.ser.prefs.indentClosingBrace. Defines if closing brace of block is indented to match indentation of the block (default) oder match indentation of selector.
  • FEATURE: Feature request: Added new Preference option cssutils.ser.prefs.omitLeadingZero. Defines if values between -1 and 1 should omit the 0, like .5px. Minified settings do this, else 0 is kept by default.
  • CHANGE (minor): Some error messages have slightly changed due to a simpler compatibility to Python 3. Problem are any u'...' texts inside error messages which now are simplified, some without and quotes. Changed are e.g. error messages by Property.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Python 3 support. At least the unittests run in Python 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.2 and Jython 2.5.1 now. Both encutils (with support by Fredrik Hedman, thanks!) and cssutils (thanks to Jaraco) and the CSS codec (thanks to Walter Dörwald) seem to work with Python 3 (tested on Python 3.2.1 Win64). Tests use Mock instead of MiniMock now as former is available for Python 2.x and 3.x.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Parsing of longer (and probably invalid) font or font-family values was extremely slow due to a very complex regex. This has been changed and parsing of specific stylesheets using these values should be much faster now. (macros[Profiles.CSS_LEVEL_2]['font-family'] is gone so if you used this in your own validation modules you need to check the source in
  • IMPROVEMENT: Fixed Issue #54 (thanks to Simon Sapin): Short hand like #f80 color value object have correct red, green and blue property values now. Also hsl() and hsla() colors report (almost) correct values (due to rounding problems).
  • Source control has moved to bitbucket Older Issues are currently still at Google Code, newer at Bitbucket. Please do not use Google Code for new issue reports anymore!
0.9.8a2 110611
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #59 which showed a rather strange problem with longer space separated lists of font-family values being so slow to actually stop parsing.
  • BUGFIX/IMPROVEMENT: Fixed Issue #48. CSSParser.parseUrl() uses the defined fetcher of this parser for the initial stylesheet at url too and not just the imported sheets from this sheet.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #50 which prevented cssutils parsing the acid2.css file correctly. Problem were selectors starting directly with [class] (an attribute selector).
  • API CHANGE (major)

    (Known) named colors are parsed as ColorValue objects now. These are the 16 simple colors (black, white, etc) and transparent but not all Extended color keywords yet. Also changed ColorValue.type to Value.COLOR_VALUE. ColorValue has additional properties red, green, blue, alpha and colorType which is one of IDENT, HASH or FUNCTION for now.

  • API CHANGE (minor)

    Removed already DEPRECATED cssutils.parse and CSSParser.parse. Use the more specific functions/methods parseFile parseString parseUrl instead.

    Removed already DEPRECATED cssutils.log.setlog and .setloglevel. Use .setLog and .setLevel instead.

    Removed already DEPRECATED cssutils.ser.keepUnkownAtRules (note the typo). Use .keepUnknownAtRules instead.

0.9.8a1 101212
  • API CHANGE (major)

    replace CSSValue with PropertyValue, Value and other classes.


    replaces CSSValue and CSSValueList

    • is iterable (iterates over all single Value objects which in soruce CSS might be separated by ”,” “/” or ” “
    • a comma separated list of IDENT values is no longer handled as a single String (e.g. Arial, sans-serif)

    replaces CSSPrimitiveValue with separate value and type info (value is typed, so e.g. string for e.g. STRING, IDENT or URI values, int or float) and is base class for more specific values like:


    replaces CSSPrimitiveValue, additional attribute uri


    replaces CSSPrimitiveValue, additional attribute dimension


    replaces CSSPrimitiveValue, additional attribute red, green, blue and alpha

    TODO: Not yet complete, only rgb, rgba, hsl, hsla and has values use this object and color and alpha information no done yet!


    replaces CSSPrimitiveValue function, not complete yet

    also renamed ExpressionValue to cssutils.css.MSValue with new API

  • IMPROVEMENT/CHANGE: Validation of color values is tighter now. Values like hsl(1, 2, 3) do not validate as it must be hsl(1, 2%, 3%). This mostly effects HSL/A and RGB/A notation.
  • IMPROVEMENT: New Value parsing and API accelerate parsing of style declarations which take about 20-30% less time now. Of course this depends on the complexity of your styles.
  • BUGFIX: fixes issue #41, #42, #45, #46

    PropertyValue.value returns value without any comments now, else use PropertyValue.cssText

  • FEATURE: cssutils.replaceUrls() accepts as first argument a cssutils.css.CSSStyleSheet but now also a

    cssutils.css.CSSStyleDeclaration object, so may be used like the following which is useful when you work with HTML style attributes:

    >>> style = cssutils.parseStyle("background-image: url(1.png), url('2.png')")
    >>> cssutils.replaceUrls(style, lambda url: 'prefix/'+url)
    >>> print style.cssText
    background-image: url(prefix/1.png), url(prefix/2.png)

    (I omitted the validation error message as more than one background-image is not yet defined in the cssutils validator but does parse through without problems)

  • CHANGE: explicit + of any dimension, percentage of number value is kept now instead of being stripped as if put explicitly in the author SHOULD have meant something ;)


0.9.7final 101127
  • FUTURE CHANGE: CSSValue and subclasses will most certain not be supported in the next cssutils 0.9.8 version. A simpler and hopefully more robust API is in development. So the next version will have incompatible changes so you might wanna use 0.9.8 from the start if you do anything fancy with CSSValue and related classes.
0.9.7b4 101101
  • EXPERIMENTAL: CSS function values using calc(...) should be partly parsable now (as experimental ExpressionValues currently)
  • BUGFIX: MS specific values are parsed a bit more reliable if parsing of these values is activated (they probable are syntactically invalid!). E.g. top: expression(eval(document.documentElement.scrollTop)) and also a few values for the MS specific filter property are parsed and reserialized now.
  • IMPROVEMENT: CSSStyleSheet.variables now contains all available variable values (from all imported sheets as well as in sheet defined itself)
0.9.7b3 100620
  • API CHANGE: Changed parameters of script/utility function csscombine.
    • parameter resolveVariables=True now (default was False before)
    • minify = True will not parse Comments at all. This is not really a change as comments were not kept in a minified stylesheet anyway but this may speed up stylesheet combination a bit
  • PERFORMANCE/IMPROVEMENT: Added parameter parseComments=True to CSSParser. If parsing with parser = cssutils.CSSParser(parseComments=False).parse... comments in a given stylesheet are simple omitted from the resulting stylesheet DOM.

  • PERFORMANCE: Compiled productions in cssutils tokenizer are cached now (to clear it use cssutils.tokenize2._TOKENIZER_CACHE.clear()) which results in a slight performance improvement. Thanks to Amit Moscovich!

0.9.7b2 100606
  • IMPROVEMENT/BUGFIX: CSSFunction value parameters may contain HASH values like #fff now. These are used in experimental properties like -moz-linear-gradient(top,#fff,#fff 55%,#e4e4e4). Fixes issue #38.
  • API CHANGE: cssutils.ser.prefs.resolveVariables == True is the default from 0.9.7b2 as CSSVariables are not in any official specification yet and better reflects what you probably want after serializing a stylesheet...
0.9.7b1 100530
  • API CHANGE: Child objects like the cssRules of a CSSStyleSheet or CSSMediaRule are no longer kept after resetting the complete contents of an object (setting cssText). This should not be expected anyway but if you relied on something like the following please beware:

    sheet = cssutils.parseString('a { color: red}')
    initial_rules = sheet.cssRules
    sheet.cssText = 'b { color: green}'
    # true until 0.9.6a6: assert sheet.cssRules == initial_rules, but now:
    assert sheet.cssRules != initial_rules
  • IMPROVEMENT: Massive speed improvement of handling of CSSVariables of a stylesheet which due to naive implementation was unbelievable slow when using a lot of vars... Should now scale a lot better, about factor 5-20 depending of amount of variables used.

  • IMPROVEMENT: Fair amount of refactoring resulting in a bit speed improvement generally too

  • CHANGE: If a CSS variable should be resolved (cssutils.ser.prefs.resolveVariables == true) but no value can be found a WARNING is logged now. Should be an ERROR actually but as currently lots of “fake” errors are reported would probably hurt more than help. A future release might improve this.

  • BUGFIX: Syntax of value of CSS Fonts Module Level 3 src property now validates if local font name is given with a quoted name, e.g.: src: local('Yanone Kaffeesatz')

0.9.7a6 100523
  • API CHANGE (major): When setting an objects cssText (or selectorText etc) property the underlying object is replaced with a new one now. E.g. if setting cssutils.css.CSSStyleRule.selectorText the underlying cssutils.css.CSSStyleRule.selectorList object is swapped to a new SelectorList object. This should be expected but cssutils until now kept the exact same object and changed its content in-place. Please be aware! (Also the strange _absorb method of some objects is gone which was used for this.)

  • API CHANGE (minor): Renamed cssutils.ser.prefs.keepUnkownAtRules to cssutils.ser.prefs.keepUnknownAtRules due to misspelling, see Issue #37. A DeprecationWarning is issued on use.

  • API CHANGES (minor):
    • and are now writable (setting with a string or cssutils.stylesheets.MediaList)
    • msg level when setting cssutils.stylesheets.MediaList.appendMedium changed to INFO (was WARNING)
    • str(cssutils.css.CSSStyleRule) slightly changed
  • IMPROVEMENT/BUGFIX: Improved distribution: Egg release should no longer include the tests package, source release still should. Also added dependency package for tests (minimock) and removed documenation txt files from distribution (HTML still included of course). This also fixes Issue #36.
  • IMPROVEMENT: cssutils issues a warning if a page selector is not one of the defined in the spec (:first, :left, :right).
  • IMPROVEMENT: Refactored quite a lot and added a few tests for variables
0.9.7a5 100523
  • same changes as 0.9.7a6 but release was incomplete :(
0.9.7a4 100323
  • API CHANGE: CSSRule.NAMESPACE_RULE actual value has been changed from 8 to 10 (according to the change in the CSSOM spec). The actual integer values SHOULD NOT be used anyway! Please do always use the ``CSSRule`` constants which are present in ALL CSSRule and subclass objects like CSSStyleRule, CSSImportRule etc.!

  • API CHANGE: CSSStyleSheet.setSerializer and CSSStyleSheet.setSerializerPref have been DEPRECATED. Use cssutils.setSerializer(serializer) or set pref in cssutils.ser.prefs instead.

  • IMPROVEMENT/CHANGE: Did some minor changes to improve compliance to
  • FEATURE: Started experimental implementation of CSS Variables

    experimental and incomplete

    Related details:

    • added cssutils.css.CSSStyleSheet.variables which is a cssutils.css.CSSVariablesDeclaration containing all available variables in this CSSStyleSheet including the ones defined in imported sheets.
    • cssutils.ser.prefs.resolveVariables == False: If set to True tries to resolve all variable references and removes any CSSVariablesRules.
    • cssutils.ser.prefs.normalizedVarNames==True: Defines if variable names should be serialized normalized (they are used as being normalized anyway)
  • FEATURE: Added new options to cssutils.script.csscombine:
    • cssText=None and href=None to start combination from a css string, which normally needs href to be able to resolve any imports.
    • resolveVariables=False which resolves any variables if given the value True
  • DOCUMENTATION: Reordered and cleared docs up a bit

0.9.7a3 100314
  • API CHANGE: CSSRule.NAMESPACE_RULE actual value has been changed from 7 to 8 (according to the change in the spec). Also CSSRule.COMMENT has a value of 1001 (was -1) and CSSRule.VARIABLES_RULE has a value of 1008 (was 8) now (being not in the official spec yet anyway but values are now in the open valuespace above 1000). The actual integer values SHOULD NOT be used anyway! Please do always use the ``CSSRule`` constants which are present in ALL CSSRule and subclass objects like CSSStyleRule, CSSImportRule etc.!
  • FEATURE: Added CSSRuleList.rulesOfType(type) which return and iterator the rules of the given type only. May be used on both CSSStyleSheet.cssRules or CSSMediaRule.cssRules. type is one of the constants defined in css.CSSRule like e.g. css.CSSRule.STYLE_RULE.
  • FEATURE (strange): IE specific values like DropShadow(color=#eee, offX=2, offY=1) (and Blur, Shadow) should be parsed and serialized now as an Expression value. I have not tested this deeply and there may be problems but for some common cases theses values should at least survive a parse/serialize with cssutils.
  • BUGFIX/IMPROVEMENT: Parser now handles FUNCTION values which themselves contain another FUNCTION as used by PrinceXML CSS like e.g. prince-link: target-counter(attr(href), page)
0.9.7a2 091230
  • API CHANGE: Setting a style declarations’ property to None or the empty string effectively removes this property from the declaration. See also Issue #32.
  • BUGFIX/FEATURE: Fixed Issue 33: URL references (like url() values) in combined sheets are now adjusted even if sheets are not in the same folder. Only relative paths are adjusted.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed parsing of FUNCTIONS in CSSUnknownRule like @bottom { counter(page) } which raised a false error of a mismatch of parenthesis
  • FEATURE: Added parameter ignoreImportRules=False to cssutils.replaceUrls which when set to True no longer reports URLs from @import rules but property values only (see Issue #33)
  • test release only
  • API CHANGE: Replaced init parameter and attribute css.Selector.parentList with css.Selector.parent
  • API CHANGE (minor): Removed css.Property.parentStyle which was deprecated for some times now in favor of css.Property.parent
  • IMPROVEMENT: Massive speed improvement due to changes in internal parsing.

    When tried in a real world situation (parsing the stylesheet for my own site inside a simple WSGI based CSS handler) the parser uses ~0.7-0.8s when using cssutils 0.9.6. With cssutils 0.9.7a0 it only needs ~0.21s so only about 1/3 to 1/4 the time...

  • FEATURE: Parameter index of CSSStyleSheet.deleteRule(index) and CSSMediaRule.deleteRule(index) may now also be a rule object to be removed from the contained cssRules list.

  • INTERNAL: Added tokenizer.push(). Prodparser uses a global tokenizer now.


0.9.6 091007
  • BUGFIX: Definition of macro for positivenum in cssutils profiles actually did allow nagative numbers, fixed (thanks to Jason R. Coombs)
  • distribution build with distribute instead of setuptools
0.9.6b5 090830
  • BUGFIX: Issue #30 fixed. Setup from source did not work.
0.9.6b4 090829
  • BUGFIX: Issue #29 fixed. Double defined namespaces are replaced with a single (the last one) now.
  • IMPROVEMENT: cssutils.resolveImports now keeps media information when to be resolved @import rule uses these. It wraps the imported rules in an @media rule which uses the same media information from the @media rule in the original sheet.

    An xml.dom.HierarchyRequestErr may occur if an imported sheet itself contains @imports with media information or other rules which are not allowed in a @media rule like @namespace rules. In that case cssutils cannot resolve the @import rule and logs a WARNING but keeps the original @import.

0.9.6b3 090802
  • FEATURE: Added parsing support and new profile for details defined in module Fonts
    • new properties: font-stretch, font-size-adjust

    • @font-face rules use a different profile for validation now which uses the defined properties only:
      • font-family font-style font-weight properties redefined
      • added src and unicode-range properties
    • Added CSSFontFaceRule.valid. A @font-face rule is valid if all font descriptions properties are valid and properties font-family and src are set.

  • FEATURE: Added cssutils.parseStyle(cssText, encoding='utf-8') convienience function which assumes that the given cssText is the content of an HTML style attribute. It returns a CSSStyleDeclaration.

  • FEATURE (experimental, request from issue #27): Added css.CSSStyleDeclaration.children() which is a generator yielding any known children of a declaration including all properties, comments or CSSUnknownRules.

  • FEATURE: CSSStyleDeclaration.insertRule also accepts a CSSRuleList now (same as CSSStyleSheet which does this for some time now).

  • FEATURE: Added CSSStyleDeclaration.keys() method which analoguous to standard dict returns property names which are set in the declaration.

  • API CHANGE: Replaced attribute css.Property.parentStyle with css.Property.parent (parentStyle is DEPRECATED now).
  • API CHANGE: Added attribute parent to all CSSRules. It contains the Parent Node of this CSSRule (currently if a CSSStyleDeclaration only!) or None.
  • API CHANGE (minor): Removed parameter profiles from cssutils.css.Property.validate(). During validation each property checks which profiles to use which normally are all registered profiles in cssutils.profile. Exceptions are @font-face (TODO: and @page) rules which use their specific profile only. To add custom properties or values for the validation of these rules you need to add these to properties[Profiles.CSS3_FONT_FACE] in module cssutils.profiles and reregister that profile.
  • BUGFIX: Improved child and parent node referencing.
    • setting CSSStyleSheet.cssRules and CSSMediaRule.cssRules correctly update parentStyleSheet (and parentRule) of contained rules now. Also settings cssRules should now work as expected.
    • setting css.CSSStyleRule.selectorList with a css.SelectorList object uses this new object directly
    • setting with a css.CSSStyleDeclaration object uses this new object directly
    • CSSStyleDeclaration.parentRule was not properly set for CSSStyleRule, CSSPageRule and CSSFontFaceRule.
  • BUGFIX: Parsing of CSSValues with unknown function names with a specific length of 4 or 7 chars were resulting in a SyntaxErr. Also parsing of comma separated list of CSS FUNCTION values works now.

  • BUGFIX: Fixed validation problems:
    • font-family: a   b (values with spaces in names without being quoted) are parsed now without emitting an ERROR. These are indeed valid but discouraged and you should use quotes (more than one space is compacted to a single space anyway so rather complicated without quotes)
    • negative lengths for the font-size property are now properly reported as ERRORs
  • IMPROVEMENT (minor): cssutils sets the HTTP header User-Agent now when fetching sheets over HTTP (with e.g. cssutils.parseUrl).
    • Refactored predefined Prod objects used for parsing of CSSValue. Also added Predef.unicode_range and renamed CHAR to char.
    • Removed css3productions which were only used for tests only anyway and which were not up to date at all
  • FEATURE (experimental): Added support to at least parse sheets with Microsoft only property values for filter which start with progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.[...](. To enable these you need to set:

    >>> from cssutils import settings
    >>> settings.set('DXImageTransform.Microsoft', True)
    >>> cssutils.ser.prefs.useMinified()
    >>> text = 'a {filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.BasicImage( rotation = 90 )}'
    >>> print cssutils.parseString(text).cssText

    This currently is a major hack but if you like to minimize sheets in the wild which use this kind of CSS cssutils at least can parse and reserialize them. Also you cannot reset this change until you restart your program.

    These custom CSS FUNCTION names are not normalized at all. Also stuff like expression(...) which was normalized until now is not anymore.

0.9.6b1 090609
  • BUGFIX: Fixed CSSPageRule.selectorText = '' which does reset the selector now
  • BUGFIX (minor): Removed false references in a few modules’ __all__ list
  • IMPROVEMENT: Jython 2.5 (from RC4) runs all tests now but a few changes had to be done:
    • exception messages sometimes do have a different format in Jython and Python (but also between Python versions >= 2.5 and < 2.4 ...)
    • Jython’s xml.dom.Exception misses attribute args it seems
0.9.6a4 090509
  • API CHANGE: Reverted handling of exceptions (issue #24) as this did not work with PyXML installed. You may again use str(e) on any raised xml.dom.Exception e. Since 0.9.6a0 exceptions raised did raise a tuple of message, line and col information. Now the message alone is raised (again). Line and col information is still available as e.line, e.col.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed issue #22 parsing or actually reserializing of values like content: "\\"

  • BUGFIX: All examples at should work now as expected:
    • Unknown ATKEYWORD tokens in selectors make these invalid now, see example : p @here {color: red}
    • completion of incomplete @media rule like @media screen { p:before { content: 'Hello does work now when parsing with a non raising parser
  • FEATURE: Updated some parts to (most changes decribed there were already done in cssutils)
    • updated tokenizer macro escape
    • replaced media aural with speech
    • property content has allowed value none now
    • property background-position allows mixed values like left 10% now
  • FEATURE: New preference option keepUnkownAtRules = False which defines if unknown atrules like e.g. @three-dee {...} are kept or not. Setting this pref to False in result removes unknown @rules from the serialized sheet which is the default for the minified settings.

  • IMPROVEMENT: Fixed issue #23. The examples/ example renderer was reusing Property objects for each HTML element so they effectively overwrote each other.

  • DOCUMENTATION: Using Sphinx 0.6.1 now
0.9.6a3 090426
  • IMPROVEMENT: Fixed CSSStyleDeclaration.length for Python 2.6.2 (due to a backport from Python 2.7 to 2.6.2 the reversed() iterator has no __length__ anymore which cssutils was using)
  • BUGFIX: New version of encutils (0.9) with these fixes:
    • invalid HTML (like < />) does not stop the encoding detection anymore
    • fixed tryEncodings if chardet is not installed
    • mismatch is False now if mime-type is text/xml (or similar) and XML encoding pseudo attribute defines encoding as this is ignored completely!
    • default encoding for CSS is UTF-8 now if not other HTTP info is given. @charset encoding information is not used by encutils!
    • log output for mismatch uses != instead of <> now
    • fixed testcases which were not all tested :(most embarrassing)
  • BUGFIX: Fixed issue #21 Definition of valid values for property background-position was wrong. Still mixed values like background-position: 0 top are invalid although most browsers accept them. But the CSS 2.1 spec defines it the above way. CSS3 backgrounds is not implemented yet in cssutils.

0.9.6a2 090308
  • API CHANGE: cssutils.profiles.Profiles (introduced in 0.9.6a1) has been refactored:

    • cssutils.profile (a cssutils.profiles.Profiles object) is now preset and available used for all validation
    • moved variable cssutils.profiles.defaultprofile to attribute Profiles.defaultProfiles (and so also available as cssutils.profile.defaultProfiles)
    • renamed Profiles.CSS_BOX_LEVEL_3 to Profiles.CSS3_BOX and Profiles.CSS_COLOR_LEVEL_3 to Profiles.CSS3_COLOR
    • renamed Profiles.basicmacros to Profiles._TOKEN_MACROS and Profiles.generalmacros to Profiles._MACROS. As these two are always added to your property definitions there is no need to use these predefined macro dictionaries in your code.
    • renamed Profiles.knownnames to Profiles.knownNames
    • Profiles.validateWithProfile returns valid, matching, profiles now
    • renamed named parameter in cssutils.css.Property.validate(profiles=None)() from profile to profiles
    • (and new cssutils.profiles.macros) use as keys the predefined constants in Profiles, like e.g. Profiles.CSS_LEVEL_2 now. If you want to use some of the predefind macros you may e.g. use cssutils.profiles.macros[Profiles.CSS_LEVEL_2]['family-name'] (in addition to the always available Profiles._TOKEN_MACROS and Profiles._MACROS).
  • CHANGE: Reporting levels of properties have changed. Please see cssutils.css.Property.validate() for details. E.g. valid properties in the current profile are only reported on DEBUG and not INFO level anymore. The log output has been changed too, context information is provided now (line, column and name of the relevant property)

  • FEATURE: Added new properties as profile Profiles.CSS3_PAGED_MEDIA: fit, fit-position, image-orientation, page, size and relevant properties already defined in Profiles.CSS_LEVEL_2
  • BUGFIX: p.valid == False is now set for Properties not valid in the current profile even if they are valid in a different profile
  • BUGFIX: Macros used when adding a new profile to cssutils.profile were polluted with ALL macros ever defined. They now correctly use the (always used) predefined macros Profiles._TOKEN_MACROS and PROFILES._MACROS in addition to the given macros (cssutils.profile.addProfile(self, profile, properties, macros=None)) only. If you want to use any macros defined in other profiles you need to add these to your own macros as seen in macros[Profiles.CSS3_BOX].
  • BUGFIX: If cssutils.ser.prefs.validOnly == True serializer incorrectly put a single ; for invalid properties out until now.
  • IMPROVEMENT: comments added by cssutils.resolveImports only use the @import rules’ href and not the absolute href of the referenced sheets anymore (might have been a possible security hole when showing a full local path to a sheet in a combined but not minified sheet)
  • IMPROVEMENT: IE specific alpha values like filter: alpha(opacity=80) are parsed and kept now.
0.9.6a1 090207
  • API CHANGE: Known but invalid properties raise/log an ERROR instead of a WARNING now. Properties not expected in the current profile log an INFO. As the default profile is None even basic properties like color are logged now. You may want to change the default profile by setting e.g. cssutils.profiles.defaultprofile = cssutils.profiles.Profiles.CSS_LEVEL_2 (~ CSS 2.1) to prevent CSS 2.1 properties to be reported. Also other validation related output has been slightly changed.

    The way to change a defaultprofile may change again.

  • API CHANGE: cssutils.script.csscombine has ONLY keyword parameters now. Use csscombine(path=path[,...]) for the old behaviour. New parameter url combines the sheet at URL now.

  • FEATURE: Added experimental profiles handling. You may add new profiles with new properties and their validation and set a defaultprofile used for validation. The current default profile is None so all predefined profiles are used. Currently 3 profiles are defined:


    Properties defined by CSS2.1


    CSS 3 color properties


    Currently overflow related properties only

    See the docs and source of the cssutils.profiles module for details.

  • FEATURE: cssutils.util._readUrl() allows fetchers to pre-decode CSS content and return unicode instances, with or without a specified source encoding (integrated from patch of Issue #19).

  • FEATURE: URL fetch method checks if cssutils is run in GoogleAppEngine (GAE) (if import google.appengine is successful) and uses the GAE fetch methods instead of urllib2 in that case. So in result cssutils should run on GAE just as elsewhere.

  • FEATURE: Function cssutils.resolveImports(sheet) returns a new stylesheet with all rules in given sheet but with all @import rules being pulled into the top sheet.

  • FEATURE: CSSCombine script and helper function resolve nested imports now.

  • FEATURE: Script csscombine has new option -u URL, --url=URL     URL to parse (path is ignored if URL given) now

  • BUGFIX: Other priority values than !important are parsed now. Nevertheless they log an ERROR or raise a SyntaxErr.

    TODO: Preference setting. Profile?

  • IMPROVEMENT: Added all known properties (by cssutils ;) to CSS2Properties.
  • DOCUMENTATION: Changed documentation generation from Epydoc and home grown HTML generation to Sphinx. Not all is perfectly markup’d yet but not too bad either...
0.9.6a0 081214
  • FEATURE: xml.dom.DOMExceptions raised do now contain infos about the position where the exception occured. An exception might for example have been raised as:

    raise xml.dom.SyntaxErr('the message', 10, 5)

    (where 10 is the line and 5 the column of the offending text).

    Therefor you may not simply use str(e) to get the exception message but you have to use msg, line, col = e.args[0], e.args[1], e.args[2]. Additionally exceptions raised have attributes e.line and e.col.

  • FEATURE: @page rule accepts named page selector now, e.g. @page intro or page main:left.

  • FEATURE: Script cssparse has new option -u URL which parses the given URL.

  • FEATURE: Started implementation of CSS profiles...
    • moved cssutils.css.cssproperties.cssvalues to cssutils.profiles.css2

    • added CSS Color Module Level 3 with properties color and opacity. Not implemented are SVG color names.

    • unknown properties raise a WARNING instead of INFO now

    • refactored CSSValue and subclasses therefore there may be some minor changes in serializing or value reporting
      • getStringValue() returns a string without quotes or for URIs a value without surrounding url(...) now
  • FEATURE experimental: Added class CSSColor which is used for RGB, RGBA, HSL, HSLA and HEX color values of CSSValue respective CSSPrimitiveValue.

  • FEATURE (strange): IE only CSS expressions should be parsed and serialized now an an Expression value. I have not tested this deeply and there may be problems but for some common cases this should work, e.g. for hacking maxwidth for IE you may define the following:

    width: expression(document.body.clientWidth > 1000 ? "1000px": "100%")

    Usage of CSS expressions is strongly discouraged as they do not validate AND may slow down the rendering and browser quite a lot!

  • BUGFIX/IMPROVEMENT: rewrite of CSSValue and related classes
    • BUGFIX: Parsing of a CSSValue like red /**/ (value, Space, comment) fixed.
    • BUGFIX: Parsing values with + operator fixed.
    • BUGFIX: CSSValueList.__str__ added (missing last underscore rendered it useless)
    • IMPROVEMENT: Serializing e.g. rgb(0,0,0) now defaults to rgb(0, 0, 0)
    • IMPROVEMENT: HEX values are minified if possible, e.g. #112233 results in #123
    • IMPROVEMENT: Improved handling of zero lengths like -0, 0.0, .0mm etc all should come out simply as 0 now
    • IMPROVEMENT: number values are normalized now, e.g. 010.0px results in 10px etc
    • IMPROVEMENT: DIMENSIONs are normalized now, e.g. 1pX results in 1px
    • IMPROVEMENT: for CSSValueList values like e.g. margin: 0 1px there are no more false WARNINGs emitted
    • IMPROVEMENT: Comments should be parsed much better now
    • IMPROVEMENT: CSSValue.getFloattype(unitType=None), parameter is now optional in which case the current dimension is used.
    • fixed lots of other minor bugs related to CSSValue
  • BUGFIX: Fixed tokenizing/parsing of rather strange STRING and URI values like:
    • Valid:

      "somestring followed by escaped NL\
       and continuing here."

      and now results in:

      "somestring followed by escaped NL and continuing here."
    • url()) => not allowed and must be written as url(")")

  • BUGFIX: Setting CSSPageRule.selectorText does actually work now.

  • BUGFIX: Other priority values than !important are parsed now. Nevertheless they log an ERROR or raise a SyntaxErr.

  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #14, added CSSStyleDeclaration().borderLeftWidth. But prefer to use CSSStyleDeclaration()['border-left.width'].

    • moved validating of a property from CSSValue to Property
    • removed CSSValue.valid as it does not make sense anymore
    • removed private init parameter CSSValue_propertyName
    • private attribute CSSValue._value contains (value, type) now. Do not use as it may change again
    • removed Property.normalname (DEPRECATED from 0.9.5 ), use instead
    • removed long deprecated CSSStyleSheet.replaceUrls, use cssutils.replaceUrls() instead
    • cssutils.utils.Base and cssutils.utils.Base2 have been changed and will be removed in favor of new cssutils.utils._NewBase. These are all internal helper classes and should not be used in client code anyway but ye be warned...
    • minor changes due to deprecation in Py3k. cssutils is NOT Py3k compliant yet though and it will probably take a while until it will be...

0.9.5 080811
  • BUGFIX: Fixed parsing of }a,b which resulted in TypeError until now.
  • BUGFIX: A rule with a selector using an undefined and therefor invalid namespace prefix is ignored now.
  • BUGFIX: Removed typo in MediaList which resulted in Exception when parsing medialist containing all and another media.
  • BUGFIX: Reading imported styles may have failed under certain conditions with an AttributeError.
  • FEATURE: Added cssutils.VERSION which is the current release version, in this case e.g. ""
  • IMPROVEMENT: Optimized imports and partly removed circular ones which are a bit tricky...
0.9.5 080730
  • API CHANGE: If a new medium is trying to be appended to a MediaList already set to all an xml.dom.InvalidModificationErr is raised. The exception to this handling is adding handheld which is a special case for Opera and kept for now. This special handling may be removed in the future. A WARNING is logged in any case.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed reference error in @import rule preventing change of the used MediaList.
  • BUGFIX: Deeply nested CSSImportRules with different encodings should keep the encoding as defined (via HTTP, parendSheet, @charset etc) now. Therefor cssutils.util._readUrl does return (encoding, enctype, decodedCssText) now where enctype is a number from 0 to 5 indicating which encoding type was used: 0 for encoding override, 1 for HTTP encoding, 2 for BOM or @charset rule, (3 is unused currently), 4 for encoding of the parent sheet and 5 if encoding defaults to UTF-8 as no other information is available. (This may later be done as constants but this function should not be used from programs generally).
  • BUGFIX: Replaced usage of WindowsError with OSError. I (naively ;) thought WindowsError at least be present in environments other than Windows but it just results in a NameError... The part of the API which triggered this Exception is an @import rule with an invalid or local (file) URI so should have happened quite rarely anyway.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Standalone scripts csscombine and csscapture are available for programmatic use in cssutils.script.csscombine and cssutils.script.CSSCapture res.
  • IMPROVEMENT: cssutils.script.csscombine and csscombine script do use the cssutils log now instead of just writing messages to sys.stderr
  • IMPROVEMENT: Optimized and refactored tokenizer (CHARSET_SYM).
0.9.5rc2 080714
  • API CHANGE/BUGFIX (major):

    Upto 0.9.5rc1 any sheet resulting from parsing via any parse* function or CSSParser(raiseExceptions=False) (which also was and is the default) resulted in the library simply logging any later exceptions and not raising them. Until now the global setting of cssutils.log.raiseExceptions=True (the default) was overwritten with the value of the CSSParser raiseExceptions setting which normally is False any time a cssutils.parse* function or CSSParser.parse* method was used. 0.9.5rc2 fixes this.

    until 0.9.5rc1:

    >>> # parsing does not raise errors
    >>> s = cssutils.parseString('$') # empty but CSSStyleSheet object
    >>> # using DOM methods does **not raise either** but should:
    >>> s.cssText = '$' # just logs:
    ERROR   CSSStyleRule: No start { of style declaration found: u'$' [1:2: ]

    from 0.9.5rc2:

    >>> # parsing STILL does not raise errors
    >>> s = cssutils.parseString('$') # empty but CSSStyleSheet object
    >>> # using DOM methods **does raise now though**
    >>> s.cssText = '$' # raises:
    xml.dom.SyntaxErr: CSSStyleRule: No start { of style declaration found: u'$' [1:1: $]

    To use the old but false behaviour add the following line at the start to your program:

    >>> cssutils.log.raiseExceptions = False # normally True

    This should only be done in specific cases as normal raising of exceptions in methods or functions with the CSS DOM is the expected behaviour. This setting may also be removed in the future so use with care.

  • BUGFIX: Parsing of @rules like @mediaall ... does not result in @media all ... anymore (so not a CSSMediaRule) but parses as @mediaall so a CSSUnknownRule. The specification is not too clear here but it seems this is the way to go. To help finding typos like this probably is, for any found CSSUnknownRule (an unknown @rule) a WARNING is emitted now (but never an exception raised). These typos will most likely happen like e.g. @mediaall, @importurl(), @namespaceprefix"uri" or @pagename:left.

  • BUGFIX: Parsing of unicode escapes like \\abc followed by CR/LF this is now correctly combined as only a single whitespace character.

  • BUGFIX: Adding a malformed stylesheets.MediaQuery to a stylesheets.MediaList does fail now, e.g.:

    >>> # invalid malformed medialist (missing comma):
    >>> sheet = cssutils.parseString('@media tv INVALID {a {top: 0;}}')
    ERROR   MediaQuery: Unexpected syntax. [1:11: INVALID]
    ERROR   MediaList: Invalid MediaQuery:  tv INVALID
    >>> # the actual rule exists but has default empty content, this may be
    changed later as it can be seen as a bug itself
    >>> sheet.cssRules[0]
    >>> sheet.cssText
    >>> # BUT: Unknown media type but as it is valid does parse:
    >>> sheet = cssutils.parseString('@media tv, UNKNOWN {a {top: 0;}}')
    WARNING MediaQuery: Unknown media type "UNKNOWN".
    >>> sheet.cssRules[0]
    cssutils.css.CSSMediaRule(mediaText=u'tv, UNKNOWN')
    >>> sheet.cssText
    '@media tv, UNKNOWN {\n    a {\n        top: 0\n        }\n    }'
  • BUGFIX: References to MediaList in CSSImportRule and CSSMediaRule are kept now properly.

  • BUGFIX: Deleting a MediaQuery item from a MediaList does use the libs logging/raising settings instead of always raising

  • IMPROVEMENT: Parsing performance has been improved (by about 25%, tested with a basic CSS of about 50 lines, so may not be representative but this release definitely is faster ;). The following changes have been done which should not impact any actual stylesheet:

    • A BOM token is recognized at the start of a stylesheet only (may be swallowed by the CSS codec anyway).
    • A BOM token is not counted in the line/col reporting anymore so the following token has a line and col of 1 now
    • Tests for tokenizing with css2productions has been removed but this is never used in the library anyway
0.9.5rc1 080709
  • API CHANGE/FEATURE: The cssutils.log may be partly used like a standard logging log. The following methods are available: (‘setLevel’, ‘getEffectiveLevel’, ‘addHandler’, ‘removeHandler’) as well as all “messaging” calls like ‘error’, ‘warning’ etc.

    Therefor cssutils.log.setloglevel has been DEPRECATED and should be used via cssutils.log.setLevel. The old method is still available though.

    cssutils.log.setlog has been renamed to cssutils.log.setLog but is still available but DEPRECATED too.

  • FEATURE: All three decoders in the codec now have an additional force argument. If force is false, the encoding from the input will only by used if is is detected explicitely via BOM or @charset rule.

  • FEATURE: cssparse script has new option -m --minify which results in the parsed CSS to be serialized minified

  • FEATURE: CSSCapture and csscombine are now available not only as standalone scripts but also via cssutils.script.CSSCapture and cssutils.script.csscombine repectively so you can use them programmatically now.

  • BUGFIX: A space after @rule keyword is added when serializing minified something like @media all{}. Until now it was @mediaall{} which is recognized by Safari only but probably is not valid at all. Other @rules behave similar now too.

  • BUGFIX: Properties of rules set via css.CSSStyleSheet.add or .insert were not set properly, e.g. parentStyleSheet or the stylesheet handling of new @import rules was buggy.

  • BUGFIX: Encountering OSError during resolving @import does not throw an error anymore but the resulting CSSImportRule.styleSheet will have a value of None. OSError will probably only happen when using parseFile.

  • IMPROVEMENT/BUGFIX: A style sheet with href == None (e.g. parsed with parseString() or build completely from scratch) uses os.getcwd() as its base href now to be able to resolve CSSImportRules.

  • IMPROVEMENT/BUGFIX: Rewrote csscombine script which should be much more stable now and handles namespaces correctly. Nested imports are still not resolved yet but this may come in the next release.

  • IMPROVEMENT/BUGFIX: Added catching of WindowsError to default fetcher (e.g. is a file URL references a file not present).

  • CHANGE/BUGFIX: Redone csscapture script. A few minor method changes (parameter ua of capture has been replaced by init parameter) and lots of internal improvement has been done.

  • CHANGE: CSSStyleSheet.add(rule) simply appends rules with no specific order in the sheet to the end of it. So e.g. COMMENTs, STYLE_RULEs, etc are appended while rules with a specific place are ordered-in as before (e.g. IMPORT_RULE or NAMESPACE_RULE). Until now rules of a specific type like COMMENTs were ordered together which does not really make sense. The csscombine script needs this functionality and the resulting combined sheets should be more readable and understandable now.

  • CHANGE: Default URL fetcher emits an ERROR instead of a warning if finding a different mine-type than text/css.

0.9.5b3 080605
  • API CHANGE: parse() is DEPRECATED, use parseFile() instead. I know this should not happen in a release already in beta but better now than later and currently both ways are still possible.

  • FEATURE: CSSStyleDeclatation objects may be used like dictionaries now. The value during setting a property may be a single value string or a tuple of (value, priority):

    >>> style = css.CSSStyleDeclaration()
    >>> style['color'] = 'red'
    >>> style.getProperties()
    [cssutils.css.Property(name='color', value=u'red', priority=u'')]
    >>> del style['color']
    >>> style['unknown'] = ('value', 'important')
    INFO    Property: No CSS2 Property: 'unknown'.
    >>> style.getProperties()
    [cssutils.css.Property(name='unknown', value=u'value', priority=u'impor
    >>> del style['never-set'] # does not raise KeyError but returns u'' like removeProperty()
  • FEATURE: While reading an imported styleSheet all relevant encoding parameters (HTTP headers, BOM/@charset, etc) are used now as defined in

    Additionally a given parameter encoding for parseString, parseFile and parseUrl functions/methods overrides any detected encoding of read sheet like HTTP information or @charset rules. Useful if e.g. HTTP information is not set properly. The given encoding is used for all imported sheets of the parsed one too! This is a cssutils only addition to the rules defined at

  • FEATURE: A custom URL fetcher may be used during parsing via CSSParser.setFetcher(fetcher) (or as an init parameter). The so customized parser is reusable (as all parsers are). The fetcher is called when an @import rule is found and the referenced stylesheet is about to be retrieved.

    The function gets a single parameter


    the URL to read

    and MUST return (encoding, content) where encoding normally is the HTTP charset given via a Content-Type header (which may simply omit the charset though) and content being the (byte) string content. The Mimetype of the fetched url should be text/css but this has to be checked by the fetcher itself (the default fetcher emits an ERROR (from 0.9.5 before a WARNING) if encountering a different mimetype). The content is then decoded by cssutils using all encoding related data available.


    def fetcher(url):
        return 'ascii', '/*test*/'
    parser = cssutils.CSSParser(fetcher=fetcher)

    To omit parsing of imported sheets just define a fetcher like lambda url: None (A single None is sufficient but returning (None, None) is more explicit).

    You might also want to define an encoding for each imported sheet with a fetcher which returns a (normally HTTP content-type header) encoding depending on each URL.

  • FEATURE: Added option -s --string to cssparse script which expects a CSS string to be parsed.

  • FEATURE/BUGFIX: Parsing of CSSStyleDeclarations is improved. Invalid /color: red;color: green is now correctly parsed as color: green now. At the same time the until now parsed but invalid $color: red (an IE hack) is not parse anymore but correctly dismissed!

    Unknown rules in CSSStyleDeclaration are parsed now. So e.g @x; color: red; which is syntactically valid is kept completely.

  • BUGFIX: parseUrl does return None if an error occurs during reading the given URL. Until now an empty stylesheet was returned.

  • BUGFIX: Fixed parsing of values like background: url(x.gif)0 0; (missing space but still valid).

  • BUGFIX: Serializing CSSUnknownRules is slightly improved, blocks are correctly indentet now.

  • LICENSE: cssutils is licensed under the LGPL v3 now (before LGPL v2.1). This should not be a problem I guess but please be aware. So the former mix of LGPL 2.1 and 3 is resolved to a single LGPL 3 license for both cssutils and the included encutils.

  • INTERNAL: Moved tests out of cssutils main package into a tests package parallel to cssutils.

0.9.5b2 080323
  • API CHANGE: cssutils.parseURL has been renamed to parseUrl for consistency with getUrls or replaceUrls. Parameter href (before called url) is the first and mandatory parameter now.
  • BUGFIX: Fix the streamreader in the codec: Honor the encoding if one is passed to the constructor instead of trying to detect it from the stream.
  • BUGFIX: Reading referenced styleSheet in CSSImportRule did not succeed as no encoding information is passed along. Encoding of referenced sheets is always retrieved via HTTP or from imported sheet itself. Fixed lots of unchecked cases and simplified exception handling when reading a referenced sheet.
  • BUGFIX: Setting atkeyword of @rules checks if it is a valid keyword for the specific rule. E.g. an @import rule accepts @im\port but not @namespace.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed setting name of CSSImportRule. Setting name other than with a string results in xml.dom.SyntaxErr raised now
  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleSheet.type with a fixed value of “text/css” and other readonly properties are really readonly now
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added media information to __str__ and __repr__ or CSSStyleSheet.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added more information to __repr__ of CSSImportRule.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added __repr__ for cssutils.util._SimpleNamespaces which is used in a selector repr.
0.9.5b1 080319
  • API CHANGE: cssutils.css.CSSSStyleSheet.replaceUrls(replacer) has been DEPRECATED but is available as an utility function so simply use cssutils.replaceUrls(sheet, replacer) instead. For the why see getUrls(sheet) below.

  • API CHANGE/FEATURE: parseString has a new parameter encoding now which is used if a str is given for cssText. Otherwise it is ignored. (patch by doerwalter)

  • API CHANGE/FEATURE: .parse() .parseString() and constructor of CSSStyleSheet have a new parameter title needed for the cascade (yet to be implemented ;).

    Also the representation of CSSStyleSheet has been improved.

  • FEATURE: Referenced stylesheet in an @import rule is read and parsed now if possible. Therefor the href given during parsing (parameter href to the parse* functions is used. It is also properly set on imported rules. The name property of the @import rule is set as the imported sheets title property.
  • FEATURE: Added cssutils.getUrls(sheet) utility method to get all url(urlstring) values in CSSImportRules and CSSStyleDeclaration objects (properties). As this function and the above mentioned replaceUrls(sheet, replacer) are useful not only for a single sheet but (later) also for a stylesheet list they are not methods of CSSStyleSheet anymore (also because they are not part of the official DOM spec). (patch by doerwalter)
  • FEATURE: Added cssutils.parseURL(url, encoding=None, ...)
  • BUGFIX: Fixes Issue #10, using full $LastChangedDate$ in source files breaks code for some locales. Now only in a few files this svn:keywords replacement is used and only to a fixed length without the problematic part. In all other files $Id$ is used which also includes simple but sufficient date information.
  • BUGFIX/IMPROVEMENT: Handling of trailing content, WS and comments in rules should be more consistent and properly handled now, added tests. Exception is CSSCharsetRule where no comments are allowed at all.
  • TESTS: Tests need ``minimock`` now! Install with easy_install minimock
  • DOCUMENTATION: Improved docs a bit.
  • LICENSE: The included encutils has been updated to version 0.8.2 with a compatible LGPL license. has been updated to version 2.1 which is in the public domain now (no Creative Commons license anymore). So only a single license (the LGPL) is used throughout cssutils now. If you have other licensing needs please let me know.
0.9.5a4 080222
  • API CHANGE: .wellformed replaces .valid for most classes. This is more an internal value so should be used carefully anyway. Some classes still have both, notably Property and CSSValue. Also removed Preferences.removeInvalid which was deprecated for some time now and made not really sense anyway.
  • API CHANGE: Removed cssutils.ser.prefs.wellformedOnly which made no sense at all. It probably was not used in client code anyway. cssutils serializes wellformed (not necessarily valid) stylesheets only (hopefully ;).
  • API CHANGE: Removed constructor parameter css.CSSImportRule(hreftype=...) which made no sense really. The type of href is still retained if css.CSSImportRule.cssText is set (e.g. for @import "a-str"; it is “string” and for @import url(an-uri); it is “uri”. How it is serialized is defined in the serializer anyway (cssutils.ser.prefs.importHrefFormat “string”, “uri” or None which then uses the one in each @import rule or defaults to “uri”) so it made no sense to have it hear too. It still may be used but generally should not.
  • FEATURE: Defining a namespace with a prefix but an empty namespaceURI is not allowed in XML 1.0 (but in XML 1.1). It is allowed in CSS and therefor also in cssutils.

    ATTENTION: CSS differs from XML 1.0 here!

  • FEATURE: Added property and as decribed in It is parsed, serialized and available in this new property now. Property name is a constructor parameter now too.

  • FEATURE: css.UnknownRule is now parsed properly and checked for INVALID tokens or if {}, [] or () are not nested or paired properly. CSSUnknownRule is removed from CSSOM but in cssutils it is and will be used for @rules of programs using extensions, e.g. PrinceXML CSS. It is not very usable yet as no actual properties except atkeyword, cssText and seq are present but at least it is syntactically checked properly and I hope serialized similar to other rules. This has been completely rewritten so may contain a few bugs so check your serialized sheets if you use non-standard @rules.

  • BUGFIX: Improved escaping. Fixed cases where e.g. an URI is given as url("\""). Also escapes of delimiters in STRINGs is improved. This is used by CSSImportRule or CSSNamespaceRule among others. All STRING values are serialized with "..." (double quotes) now. This should not be a problem but please note that e.g. a CSSValue may be slightly different now (but be as valid as before).

  • BUGFIX: Fixed serialization of namespaces in Selector objects. Actually all possible namespaced selectors should be preserved now:


    any element or if a default namespace is given any element in that namespace


    all “a” elements or if a default namespace is given “a” elements in that namespace


    any element in the no namespace (the empty namespace)


    “a” elements in the no namespace (the empty namespace)


    any element in any namespace including the no namespace


    “a” elements in any namespace including the no namespace


    any element in the namespace defined for prefix p


    “a” elements in the namespace defined for prefix p

  • BUGFIX: Default namespace is no longer used by attribute selectors.

  • CHANGE: CSSNamespaceRule implements now. Giving the namespaceURI as an URI token (url("uri")) is no longer deprecated so no warning is emitted any longer.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Started refactoring rules to have wellformed property and serializing included comments better.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added simple testtool for functional tests in /examples plus lots of smaller bugfixes, improvements and refactorings
0.9.5a3 080203
  • API CHANGE: Refactored and fixed namespace handling

    Aim was to prevent building invalid style sheets. therefor namespaces must be checked e.g. when adding a new Selector etc. This probably is not fixed for all cases but much better now than before.

    • added CSSStyleSheet.namespaces which is a mapping of prefix: namespaceURI and mirrors all namespaces as defined in @namespace rules. New Namespaces may also be set here as well as prefixes changed.
    • if more than one CSSNamespaceRule with the same namespaceURI is set only the last one will be kept. The prefix of that rule is used.
    • CSSNamespaceRule.namespaceURI is readonly now, it can only be set in the constructor (needed to prevent an invalid sheet when changing this uri)
    • Namespaces used in a Selector or SelectorList or even a CSSStyleRule while these are not attached to a CSSStyleSheet (which would contain the necessary CSSNamespaceRules) are kept internally. All these classes accept for parameter selectorText (or cssText for CSSStyleRule) a tuple of (string-to-parse, dict-of-namespaces) now while not attached to a style sheet. If attached dict-of-namespaces is ignored as the namespaces of the relevant style sheet are used. If you need to set e.g. a new selector within a yet undefined namespace, set the namespace in the style sheet first simply by setting e.g. sheet[prefix] = namespaceURI
    • removed CSSStyleSheet.prefixes
    • removed Selector.prefixes
  • API CHANGE: parentRule and parentStyleSheet of all CSS rules are now readonly to prevent building illegal style sheets.

  • API CHANGE: Changed order of constructor parameters for CSSStyleDeclaration. Named parameters SHOULD be used anyway but be careful if you used ordered ones here!

  • FEATURE: CSSStyleSheet and CSSMediaRule are iterable now. Both iterate on their cssRules. (Internally generators are used.)
  • FEATURE: added convinience method CSSStyleSheet.add(rule) which behaves exactly like .insertRule(rule, inOrder=True). So rules are added to the approprite position in a style sheet. E.g a namespace rule if put after any @import but before other rules like style or font-face rules.
  • FEATURE: added parameter inOrder=False to method CSSStyleSheet.insertRule which inserts a given rule to its proper hierarchy. Parameter index is ignored in this case but the resulting index is properly returned.
  • FEATURE: added convinience method CSSMediaRule.add(rule) which behaves exactly like .insertRule(rule) (there is no parameter “inOrder” here as no invalid order may be build in CSS 2.1 or 3).
  • FEATURE: Added Selector.parentList which contains a reference to the containing SelectorList. Needed (at least) to process namespaces properly.
  • BUGFIX: CSSMediaRule.insertRule setting with a rule string fixed

  • BUGFIX: *.parentStyleSheet and *.parentRule where * is any CSSRule is properly set now

  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleDeclatation.getPropertyPriority(p) returns important (without the "!"!) or the empty string now (see Same goes for Property.priority which is not in CSSOM but cssutils only.

    (Property._normalpriority has been removed, the normalized value that was available here is now in Property.priority. The literal priority value is available in Property.literalproperty now (analog to Property.literalname). All these values probably should not be used by client code anyway but may be helpful when using CSS hacks.)

  • BUGFIX: Changed serialization of combinators in Selector according to, e.g. a>b+c~d e serializes as a > b + c ~ d e now (single spaces around +, > and ~). A new serializer preference selectorCombinatorSpacer = u' ' has been added to overwrite this behaviour (which is set to u'' when using the CSS minifier settings)

  • BUGFIX: Some minor fixes including some reference improvements

  • IMPROVEMENT: csscombine is available via from cssutils.scripts import csscombine now (not directly in cssutils though!). Some optimizations and comments added.
0.9.5a2 080115
  • BUGFIX: Serializing a CSSStyleDeclaration did not include the effective properties but the last property if set multiple times in a single declaration and preferences keepAllProperties == False.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed parsing of last remaining example in CSS spec color:red; color{;color:maroon}; color:green which now correctly parses color: green
  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleDeclaration.__contains__(property) uses not the literal but the normalized name ( to check if a property is set in this declaration now
  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleDeclaration.getProperties(all=True) failed if comments were present
0.9.5a1 080113
  • API CHANGE: is now the same as Property.normalname which is DEPRECATED now. To access the literal name (the value which was available in name until now) use Property.literalname. For most cases where a property name is used the new behaviour makes more sense, therefor the change.

    Do not use ``normalname`` anymore, it will probably be removed for release 1.0.

    NEW since 0.9.5:

    p = Property(ur'c\olor', 'red') == ur'color'
    p.literalname == ur'c\olor'
    # DEPRECATED: p.normalname == ur'color'

    OLD until 0.9.5:

    p = Property(ur'c\olor', 'red') == ur'c\olor'
    p.normalname == ur'color'
  • API CHANGE: iterating over css.CSSStyleDeclaration yields now effective properties only and not all properties set in the declaration. E.g. from color: red; c\olor: green only one Property is returned which has the value green. To retrieve all properties use CSSStyleDeclaration.getProperties(all=True). Reason for this change is that for most cases the new default makes more sense.

  • FEATURE: css.CSSStyleDelcaration supports in now. Expected is a Property or a name of a property which is checked if already in the style declaration

  • FEATURE: css.Selector has a readonly property specificity now which is calculated as described at

    ATTENTION: changing the Selector by changing its property seq does not update the specificity! Selector.seq.append has been made private therefor and writing to seq not be used at all!

  • FEATURE: Added css.CSSStyleDeclaration.getProperty(name, normalize=True) which returns the effective Property object for name.

  • FEATURE: Implemented, URI may be URL(...) or u\r\6c(...) now

  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleDeclaration.removeProperty(name, normalize=True) removes all properties with given name now and returns the effective value. If normalize==False removes only properties with name=Property.literalname and also only returns the effective value of the unnormalized name.
  • BUGFIX: Priority of Properties is acknowledged by all methods of css.CSSStylesDeclaration now.
  • BUGFIX: Fixed serializing of strings like “\a”, “\22” and ‘\27’ in @import urls, selectors and values. func(“string”) is not yet fixed!!!
  • CHANGE: CSSValueList does not emit warnings for shorthand properties anymore. Nevertheless these may be invalid!
  • IMPROVEMENT: CSSStyleDeclaration and some minor other parts refactored
0.9.4b1 071229
  • FEATURE: Added csscombine script which currently resolves @import rules into the input sheet. No nested @imports are resolved yet and @namespace rules do not work yet though!
  • FEATURE: css.CSSStyleSheet.insertRule(rule, index) accepts now a css.CSSRuleList in addition to a css.CSSRule object or a CSS string. Useful if you like a combine a complete sheet into an existing one.
  • BUGFIX: Serializing escape sequences add a single SPACE after each escape. This was not present until now so a sequence like “\74 a” did come out as “\000074a” which was not as intended. Also as a SPACE is inserted in any case all escapes are not padded to 6 digits anymore but are only as long as needed.

  • BUGFIX: Handling of illegal selectors is now same as the W3C CSS validator (and according the selector spec - I hope ;). Illegal selectors result the complete rule being dropped. Fixed are the following (edge) cases:


    Meant was probably a space between a and b (plus maybe the comment) but it MUST be inserted. IE and Safari nevertheless seem to parse this rule as a b so as if a space would be present. cssutils now parses this selector as intented by the spec as ab.


    Again spaces around the UNIVERSAL * were probably meant by the author. IE and Safari seem to parse this invalid selector as a b. cssutils ignores this rule completely!

  • BUGFIX: css.CSSRuleList is still a Python list but setting methods like __init__, append, extend or __setslice__ are added later on instances of this class if so desired. E.g. CSSStyleSheet adds append which is not available in a simple instance of this class! This has been changed as no validation is possible in CSSRuleList itself.

  • CHANGE: Unknown media type in a MediaQuery (e.g. @media tv, radio) does emit WARNING instead of ERROR now.
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added better str and repr to cssutils.serializer.Preferences
  • IMPROVEMENT: Added position information to some error reportings (Property, CSSMediaRule
0.9.4a4 071202
  • FEATURE: Implemented css.CSSFontFaceRule.

  • FEATURE: Added css.CSSStyleSheet.encoding which reflects the encoding of an explicit @charset rule. Setting the property to None removes an @charset rule if present and sets the encoding to the default value ‘utf-8’. Setting a value of utf-8 sets the encoding to the default value too but the @charset rule is explicitly added.

    Effectively this removes the need to use css.CSSCharsetRule directly as using this new property is easier and simpler.

    (A suggestion in the CSSOM but not yet resolved. IMHO it does make sense so it is present in cssutils. css.CSSCharsetRule remains though if you really want to use it).

  • BUGFIX/IMPROVEMENT: css.SelectorList and stylesheets.MediaList have (Python) list like behaviour partly but are directly not lists anymore (which did not work properly anyway...). The following list like possibilities are implemented for now:

    • item in x => bool
    • len(x) => integer
    • get, del and set x[i]
    • for item in x
    • x.append(item)

    The DOM additional methods and properties like length or item() are still present (and also will be in the future) but the standard Python idioms are probably easier to use.

    stylesheets.StyleSheetList and css.CSSRuleList are the only direct lists for now. This may change in the future so it is safer to also use the above possibilities only for now.

  • BUGFIX: Fixed handling of “\ ” (an escaped space) in selectors and values.

  • BUGFIX: !important is normalized (lowercase) now

  • DOCS: Slight overhaul of docs.
0.9.4a3 071106
  • CSSCapture:
    • FEATURE: Added option -m, --minified to CSSCapture which saves the retrieved CSS files with the cssutils serializer setting Preferences.useMinified().
    • BUGFIX: option ‘-p’ of csscapture is removed as it was not used anyway. A new option -r, --saveraw has been added which defaults to False. If given saves raw css otherwise cssutils’ parsed files.
    • BUGFIX: CSSCapture now uses the cssutils.parseString method so invalid sheets should be saved too. Until now in case of an error the sheet was not saved at all.
  • BUGFIX/FEATURE: Handling of unicode escapes should now work propertly.

    The tokenizer resolves any unicodes escape sequences now so cssutils internally simple unicode strings are used.

    The serializer should serialize a CSSStyleSheet properly escaped according to the relevant encoding defined in an @charset rule or defaulting to UTF-8. Characters not allowed in the current encoding are escaped the CSS way with a backslash followed by a uppercase 6 digit hex code point (always 6 digits to make it easier not to have to check if no hexdigit char is following).

    This FEATURE was not present in any older version of cssutils.

  • BUGFIX: Names (of properties or values) which are normalized should be properly normalized now so simple escapes like c\olor but also unicode escapes like \43olor should result in the property name color now

  • BUGFIX: Selector did fail to parse negation :not( correctly

  • BUGFIX: CSSValueList treated a value like -1px as 2 entries, now they are correctly 1.

  • BUGFIX: Validation of values for background-position was wrong.

  • BUGFIX: CSSPrimitiveValue.primitiveValue was not recognized properly if e.g. a CSS_PX was given as ‘1PX’ instead of ‘1px’.

  • BUGFIX/CHANGE: Reporting of line numbers should have improved as \n is now used instead of os.linesep.

  • CHANGE: Invalid Properties like $top which some UAs like Internet Explorer still are use are preserved. This makes the containing Property and CSSStyleDeclaration invalid (but still wellformed although they technically are not) so if the serializer is set to only output valid stuff they get stripped anyway.

    This may change and also simply may be put in a cssutils wide “compatibility mode” feature.

  • CHANGE: If a CSSValue cannot be validated (no property context is set) the message describing this is set to DEBUG level now (was INFO).

  • IMPROVEMENT: “” catches exception if setuptools is not installed and emits message

  • DOCS: Added more documentation and also a standalone HTML documentation which is generated from the SVN RST docs.
0.9.4a2 071027
  • FEATURE: added Preferences.useMinified() which sets preferences that a stylesheet will be serialized as compact as possible. Added Preferences.useDefaults() which resets the serializer preferences. There a few new preferences have been added as well (see the documentation for details as most are hardly useful for normal usage of the library)
  • BUGFIX: Fixed parsing of font value which uses “font-size/line-height” syntax.
  • CHANGE: Preferences.keepAllProperties defaults to True now (hardly used but safer if different values have been set which are used by different UAs for example.)
0.9.4a1 071021 (new parser [again])
  • FEATURE: Added a new module cssutils.codec that registers a codec that can be used for encoding and decoding CSS. (

  • FEATURE: Added implementation of stylesheets.MediaQuery which are part of stylesheets.MediaList. See the complete spec at for details.

    Not complete yet: Properties of MediaQueries are not validated for now and maybe some details are missing

  • FEATURE: Implemented cssutils.DOMImplementationCSS. This way it is possible to create a new StyleSheet by calling DOMImplementationCSS.createCSSStyleSheet(title, media). For most cases it is probably easier to make a new StyleSheet by getting an instance of cssutils.css.CSSStyleSheet though.

  • FEATURE: cssutils is registered to xml.dom.DOMImplementation claiming to implement CSS 1.0, CSS 2.0, StyleSheets 1.0 and StyleSheets 2.0. This is probably not absolutely correct as cssutils currently is not a fully compliant implementation but I guess this is used very rarely anyway.

  • API CHANGE: CSSNamespacerule.uri is renamed to CSSNamespaceRule.namespaceURI which is defined is CSSOM. uri is deprecated and still available but the constructor parameter is named namespaceURI in any case now.
  • API CHANGE: As stylesheets.MediaQuery is implemented now all classes using an instance of stylesheets.MediaList are presented slightly different. Until now a simple list of string was given, now the list contains MediaQuery objects.
  • API CHANGE: _Property has been renamed to css.Property and is used in context of CSSStyleDeclaration and MediaQuery. Attribute Property.value has been de-deprecated and may be used normally now (again). The Property constructor has only optional parameters now.
  • API CHANGE: Removed experimental class SameNamePropertyList which was used in CSSStyleDeclaration and also method CSSStyleDeclaration.getSameNamePropertyList. A new method CSSStyleDeclaration.getProperties() has been added which is simpler and more useful
  • API CHANGE: renamed attribute namespaces of CSSStyleSheet and Selector to prefixes as they really are the prefixes of declared namespaces
  • API CHANGE (internal): renamed Serializer.do_css_Property to Serializer.do_Property as it is Property is not in the official DOM, may not stay in package css and is used by MediaQuery too
  • API CHANGE (internal): renamed Serializer.do_CSSvalue to Serializer.do_CSSValue
  • BUGFIX: Tantek hack (using voice-family) should work now as SameNamePropertyList is removed and properties are kept in order
  • BUGFIX: Token CHARSET_SYM is now as defined in the CSS 2.1 Errata as literal “@charset ” including the ending space.
  • CHANGE: A completely new tokenizer and mostly also the parser have been reimplemented in this release. Generally it should be much more robust and more compliant now. It will have new errors and also some slight details in parsing are changed.
  • DOCS: Added some docs in reStructuredText format including a basic server to view it as HTML. The HTML may be published as well.
0.9.3a1 - 070905
  • FEATURE: Implemented css.CSSValue, css.CSSPrimitiveValue and css.CSSValueList.

    Not yet implemented are:
    • css.CSSPrimitiveValue.getCounterValue and css. Counter
    • css.CSSPrimitiveValue.getRGBColorValue and css.RGBColor
    • css.CSSPrimitiveValue.getRectValue and css.Rect
    • FEATURE: css.CSSValueList is iterable so may be used in a for loop
    • FEATURE: CSSValue has property cssValueTypeString which is the name of the relevant cssValueType, e.g. “CSS_PRIMITIVE_TYPE”. Mainly useful for debugging.
    • FEATURE: CSSPrimitiveValue has property primitiveTypeString which is the name of the relevant primitiveType, e.g. “CSS_PX”. Mainly useful for debugging.
    • CSSValue has an init Parameter _propertyname to set a context property for validation. If none is set the value is always invalid. THIS MAY CHANGE!
  • FEATURE (experimental): CSSStyleDeclaration is iterable now. The iterator returns all properties set in this style as objects with properties name, cssValue and priority. Calling CSSStyleDeclaration.item(index) on the other hand simply returns a property name and also only the normalized name (once). Example:

    sheet = cssutils.parseString('a { color: red; c\olor: blue; left: 0 !important }')
    for rule in sheet.cssRules:
        style =
        for property in style:
            name =
            cssValue = property.cssValue
            priority = property.priority
            print name, '=', cssValue.cssText, priority
        # prints:
        # color = red
        # c\olor = blue
        # left = 0 !important
        for i in range(0, style.length):
            name = style.item(i)
            cssValue = style.getPropertyCSSValue(name)
            priority = style.getPropertyPriority(name)
            print name, '=', cssValue.cssText , priority
        # prints:
        # color = blue
        # left = 0 !important

    ATTENTION: This has been changed in 0.9.5, see details there!

  • FEATURE (experimental): added CSSStyleSheet.replaceUrls(replacer) which may be used to adjust all “url()” values in a style sheet (currently in CSSStyleDeclaration and CSSImportRules).

  • FEATURE: added CSSStyleDeclaration.getCssText(separator=None) which returns serialized property cssText, each property separated by given separator which may e.g. be u’’ to be able to use cssText directly in an HTML style attribute. ”;” is always part of each property (except the last one) and can not be set with separator!

  • FEATURE: href and media arguments can now be passed to parse() and parseString() functions and methods. This sets the appropriate attributes on the generated stylesheet objects.

  • FEATURE: CSSMediaRule has an init parameter mediaText synchronous to CSSImportRule now

  • FEATURE: The MediaList constructor can now be passed a list of media types.

  • FEATURE: CSSRule and subclasses have a property typeString which is the name of the relevant type, e.g. STYLE_RULE. Mainly useful for debugging.

  • FEATURE: cssutils.serialize.Preferences has a new option lineSeparator that is used as linefeed character(s). May also be set to u'' for CSSStyleDeclareation.cssText' to be directly usable in e.g. HTML style attributes

  • API CHANGE (internal): renamed serializers method do_stylesheet to do_CSSStyleSheet
  • BUGFIX (issue #9): Parsing of empty url() values has been fixed
  • BUGFIX: Handling of linenumbers in the serializer has been fixed.
  • BUGFIX (minor): removed debug output in CSSStyleDeclaration
  • CHANGE (experimental!): CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyCSSValue() for shorthand properties like e.g. background should return None. cssutils returns a CSSValueList in these cases now. Use with care as this may change later

  • CHANGE: CSSValue default cssText is now u"" and not u"inherit" anymore

  • CHANGE: css.CSSStyleDeclaration.cssText indents its property not anymore.

  • CHANGE: cssutils.serialize.CSSSerializer has been refactored internally to support the lineSeparator option.

  • CHANGE: The Selector and SameNamePropertyList (which might be renamed as it is experimental) class are now available from cssutils.css too.

    UPDATE: SameNamePropertyList removed in 0.9.4

  • CHANGE: Tokenizer strips HTML comment tokens CDO and CDC from tokenlist now.

  • CHANGE: Added __repr__ and __str__ methods to most classes. __str__ reports e.g. <cssutils.css.CSSImportRule object href=None at 0xaaa870>, __repr__ e.g. cssutils.css.CSSImportRule(href=None, mediaText=u'all') which is a valid contructor for the object in most cases (which might not be complete for all init parameter for all classes like in this case though). The following details are included:

    • CSSStyleSheet shows the title and href
    • CSSCharsetRule shows the encoding
    • CSSCharsetRule shows the cssText (not in __str__ though)
    • CSSImportRule shows the href and the MediaList mediaText
    • CSSMediaRule shows the MediaList mediaText
    • CSSNameSpaceRule shows the prefix and uri
    • CSSPageRule shows the selectorText
    • CSSStyleRule shows the selectorText
    • CSSUnknownRule shows nothing special
    • CSSStyleDeclaration shows the number of properties set for __str__ but an empty CSSStyleDeclaration constructor for __repr__ as showing cssText might be way too much
    • SameNamePropertyList shows the name
    • CSSValue, CSSPrimitiveValue show the actual value for __repr__, some details for __str__
    • CSSValueList shows an __repr__ which is not possible to eval() and some details for __str__
    • _Property shows infos but should be used directly for now anyway!
    • Selector the selectorText
    • MediaList shows the mediaText
0.9.2b3 070804
  • FEATURE: Script cssparse handles more than one file at a time now (patch from Issue #6 by Walter Doerwald)
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #7: typo gave AssertionError for selectors like tr:nth-child(odd) td{}
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #5: false warning for certain values for background-position removed
  • BUGFIX: Report of line/col for any node was not correct if a node contained line breaks itself
  • Quite a few internal optimizations (thanks to Walter Doerwald)
  • Added tests for issues #3 and #4 to tokenizer too
0.9.2b2 070728
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #4, tokenizing of color values like #00a was buggy (mixture of numbers and characters). Also warnings of invalid property values should be more reliable now (regexes in css.cssproperties changed).
0.9.2b1 070726
  • BUGFIX: Fixed Issue #3, WS was not handled properly if added to token list by tokenizer
0.9.2a5 070624
  • BUGFIX: Unexpected end of style sheet now handled according to spec for most cases, e.g. incomplete CSSStyleRule, CSSMediaRule, CSSImportRule, CSSNamespaceRule, CSSPageRule.
0.9.2a4 070620
  • BUGFIX (major): no changes to the library, but fixed setup of source dist
0.9.2a3 071018
  • no changes to the library, just optimized setuptools dist
0.9.2a2 070617
  • API CHANGE: removed cssutils.util.normalize function, use static (but private!) method cssutils.util.Base._normalize if absolutely needed which may be change too though
  • API CHANGE (minor): removed getFormatted and `pprint from various classes which were both DEPRECATED for some time anyway
  • API CHANGE (minor): _Property.value is DEPRECATED, use _Property.cssValue.cssText instead, _Property is defined as private anyway so should not be used directly
  • API CHANGE (minor): removed Tokenizer.tokensupto which was used internally only
  • CHANGE: Numbers and Dimensions starting with ”.” like ”.1em” in the original stylesheet will be output as “0.1em” with a proceding 0 now.
  • CHANGE: Report of parsing errors have a slightly different syntax now.
  • FEATURE: New Preferences.omitLastSemicolon option. If True omits ; after last property of CSSStyleDeclaration
  • BUGFIX: The css validator definition for “num” was wrong, so values like -5.5em would issue a warning but should be correct
  • BUGFIX: Dimension were not parsed correcly so 1em5 was parsed a “1em” + 5 which should really be one “1em5” were “em5” is an unknown dimension. This had probably no effect on current stylesheets but was a tokenizing error
  • BUGFIX: Parsing of nested blocks like {}, [] or () is improved
  • BUGFIX: Comment were not parsed correctly, now /*\*/ is a valid comment
  • BUGFIX: css.Selector had a warning which called “warning” which in fact is named “warn”. Some other error messages gave token list instead of a more useful string in case of an error, that is fixed as well (CSSComment and CSSValue).
  • IMPROVEMENT: Line number are still not given for all errors reported but for at least some more now
  • IMPROVEMENT: Performance of the tokenizer has been improved, it is now about 20% faster (testing the unittests) which may not hold for all usages but is not too bad as well ;)
0.9.2a1 070610
  • FEATURE: Partly Implemented css.CSS2Properties so you can now use:

    >>> sheet = cssutils.parseString('a { font-style: italic; }')
    >>> style = sheet.cssRules[0].style
    >>> style.fontStyle = 'normal'
    >>> print style.fontStyle

    Each property can be retrieved from CSSStyleDeclaration object with its name as an object property. Names with “-” in it like font-style need to be called by the respective DOM name fontStyle. Setting a property value works the same way and even del which effectively removes a property from a CSSStyleDeclaration works. For details see CSSStyleDeclaration.

    Not implemented are the finer details, see the module documentation of cssutils.css.cssproperties.

  • BUGFIX: CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyCSSValue returns None for all shorthand properties

  • refactored some parts and added more tests

0.9.1b3 070114
  • CHANGE for Serializer preference options:

    new name + defaultAtKeyword instead of normalkeyword + defaultPropertyName instead of normalpropertyname

    camelcase now: + keepComments instead of keepComments + lineNumbers instead of linenumbers

    replaced (see below) + keepAllProperties instead of keepsimilarnamedproperties

  • FEATURE: Serializer.prefs.keepAllProperties replaces `` keepsimilarnamedproperties:

    if True all properties given in the parsed CSS are kept. This may be useful for cases like:

    background: url(1.gif) fixed;
    background: url(2.gif) scroll;

    Certain UAs may not know fixed and will therefor ignore property 1 but an application might simply like to prettyprint the stylesheet without loosing any information.

    Defaults to False.

    See examples/ for an usage example.

  • FEATURE(experimental, might change!):

    CSSStyleDeclaration.getSameNamePropertyList(name) Experimental method to retrieve a SameNamePropertyList object which holds all Properties with the given name. The object has an attribute name and a list of Property objects each with an actual name, value and priority.

    UPDATE: SameNamePropertyList removed in 0.9.4

    CSSStyleDeclaration.setProperty has a new positional parameter overwrite which defines if the property which is set overwrites any former value (or values, see getSameNamePropertyList) (default behaviour) or the given value is appended to any former value (overwrite=False). Useful for cases where a property should have different values for different UAs.

    Example 1: CSS hacks:

    width: 100px; /* wrong box model value for IE5-5.5 */
    padding: 5px;
    w\idth: 90px; /* correct box model value for later browsers */

    Example 2: UA capabilities:

    background: url(2.gif) scroll; /* Fallback for UA which do not understand fixed */
    background: url(1.gif) fixed; /* UA which do know fixed */
  • FEATURE: Reimplemented csscapture, which uses the new serializer preference keepAllProperties

  • BUGFIX(major!): Serializer outputs actual property depending on Property priority out now

    see examples/

  • BUGFIX(minor): Parameter name for CSSStyleDeclaration.XXX(name)` is normalized now, so color, c\olor and COLOR are all equivalent

0.9.1b2 070111
  • FEATURE: added Serializer.prefs.keepsimilarnamedproperties:

    if True all properties with the same normalname but different actual names are kept, e.g. color, color, color. This is mainly useful to keep a stylesheet complete which uses xbrowser hacks as above.

    UPDATE IN 0.9.1b3!

  • BUGFIX (minor): Serializer.prefs.normalpropertyname did not work properly if a property was set 2 times in the same declaration, e.g. color: red;c\olor: green setting the pref to False results in c\olor: green now.

  • BUGFIX (minor): Serializing of CSSStyleDeclaration did not work well when CSSComments were mixed with Properties.

  • FUTURE CHANGE: readonly will be removed from most rules. It is not used anyway, may be readded in a future release

  • CHANGE: order of constructor parameters changed in CSSImportRule. Should be no problem as positional parameters are discouraged anyway

  • CHANGE: cssutils needs Python 2.4 from the release on as it uses the buildin set

  • CHANGE: removed CSSMediaRule.addRule which was deprecated anyway

  • FEATURE: implemented @page CSSRule including testcases

  • FEATURE: implemented @namespace CSSRule according to with the following changes
    • the url() syntax is not implemented as it may (?) be deprecated anyway
    • added namespace parsing to Selector, see
    • CSSStyleSheet checks if all namespaces in CSSStyleRules have been declared with CSSNamespaceRules. If not the rule’s valid property is set to False and the serializer omits it (you may change Preferences.removeInvalid to change this behaviour).
    • CSSStyleSheet and Selector object have a new propery namespaces which currently contain declared and used namespace prefixes (!), this may change in the future so use with care if at all.
  • FEATURE: implemented CSSRule.parentStyleSheet for all rules

  • FEATURE: implemented CSSRule.parentRule for relevant rules (all allowed in @media)

  • BUGFIX: Set parentStyleSheet and parentRule as instance vars in css.CSSRule instead as class vars

  • BUGFIX: CSSComment raised exception if setting cssText with empty string - fixed

  • DOCS: generated docs with epydoc which are then included in src dist. Source documentation is cleaned up a bit.

  • INTERNAL: Refactored some unittests

  • INTERNAL: implementation based on DOM Level 2 Style Recommendation as opposed to the Proposed Recommendation now. As there are no main changes I could find this does not make any difference...

  • CHANGE, renamed Serializer.prefs.srcatkeyword to Serializer.prefs.normalkeyword which work just the other way round but work as Serializer.prefs.normalpropertyname

  • BUGFIX in css.Selector and added support regarding handling of pseudoclasses (:x or :x()) and pseudoelements ::x

  • BUGFIX and refactoring in tokenizer, mostly regarding escape sequences
    • combination of and NEWLINE in a string is removed according to spec now
  • added Serializer.prefs.normalpropertyname, if True, property names are normalized if known (color), else literal form from CSS src is used (e.g. c\olor). Defaults to True.

  • removed Token.literal which value is in value now, normalized value is in normalvalue

  • removed Token.ESCAPE. Escapes are contained in IDENTifiers now.

  • internal change: WS is generally kept by tokenizer now, former normalized value u' ' is hold in Token.normalvalue. Serializer does not use it yet and some classes (like Selector) use normalvalue.

    uses normalized form of @keyword in source CSS if True (e.g. @import), else literal form in CSS sourcefile (e.g. @i\mport). Defaults to True.

  • NEW Serializer.prefs.keepcomments removes all comments if False, defaults to True

  • NEW Serializer.prefs.srcatkeyword UPDATE see 9.91a1

  • fixed tokenizer to handle at least simple escapes like c\olor which is the same as color. The original value is preserved but not used yet except in CSSComments which preserve the original values. See also Serializer.prefs.srcatkeywords

  • CSSMediaRule tested and lots of bugfixes
    • constructor has no parameters anymore (mediaText is removed!)
    • addRule is DEPRECATED, use insertRule(rule) with no index instead. Synchronized with CSSStyleSheet.insertRule
  • setting of removed, use methods of this object directly. Synchronized with

  • CSSStyleSheet.insertRule raises xml.dom.IndexSizeErr if an invalid index is given. Index may be None in which case the rule will be appended.

    Synchronized with CSSMediaRule.insertRule

  • CSSStyleDeclaration bugfixes in parsing invalid tokens

  • stylesheets.MediaList bugfixes in parsing uppercase media values like PRINT

  • added more unittests (CSSMediaRule)

  • various bugfixes

0.9a5 061015
  • reimplemented property validator:
    • for unknown CSS2 Properties a INFO message is logged
    • for invalid CSS2 Property values a WARNING message is issued
  • atrules have a new property atkeyword which is the keyword used in the CSS provided. Normally something like “@import” but may also be an escaped version like “@import” or a custom one used in CSSUnknownRule.

  • tokenizer and css.selector.Selector
    • added CSS3 combinator ~
    • added CSS3 attribute selectors ^=, $=, *=
    • added CSS3 pseudo selector :: and pseudo-functions like :lang(fr)
  • Token
    • added some new constants mainly replacing DELIM, e.g. UNIVERSAL, GREATER, PLUS, TILDE

    (CSS3 see

  • Improved parsing of “Unexpected end of string” according to spec

  • fixed serializing of CSSUnknownRule if valid == False

  • Properties may also be set with a numeric value now, before everything had to be a string. Direct use of _Property is discouraged though as it may well be changed again in a future version.

0.9a4 060927
  • CSSStyleSheet:
    • removed init parameter type which is now set as a static type to “text/css”
    • removed addRule which emits DeprecationWarning now Use insertRule without parameter index
    • added new methods setSerializer(cssserializer) and setSerializerPref(self, pref, value) to control output of a stylesheet directly.
  • CSSStyleRule:
    • new property selectorList is an instance of SelectorList which contains a list of all Selector elements of the rule
    • removed addSelector() and getSelectors(), use property selectorList instead
    • removed getStyleDeclaration() and setStyleDeclaration(), use property style instead
  • CSSStyleDeclaration:
    • new constructor parameter cssText
  • moved SelectorList, Selector and Property to own modules. Should not be used directly yet anyway.

  • Token: renamed IMPORTANT to IMPORTANT_SYM

  • unittests:
    • added tests for CSSStyleSheet, CSSStyleRule, SelectorList, Selector CSSStyleDeclaration, _Property
0.9a3 - 060909
  • refined EasyInstall (still some issues to be done)

  • CSSCharsetRule serialized and parsed according to spec only as @charset "ENCODING"; so no comments allowed, only one space before encoding string which MUST use " as delimiter (see


  • added tests for setting empty cssText for all @rules and CSSStyleRule

  • bugfixes
    • CSSStyleDeclaration: Of two Properties if written directly after another``a:1;b:2`` one was swallowed
  • CSSSerializer:

    added new class cssutils.serialize.Preferences to control output or CSSSerializer

0.9a2 - 060908
  • using setuptools for deployment
    • new script cssparse which pprints css “filename”
  • subpackages css and stylesheets are directly available from cssutils now

  • renamed module cssutils.cssparser to cssutils.parse which should not be used directly anyway. Always use cssutils.CSSParser or cssutils.parse (s.b)

  • added utility functions parse(cssText) and parse(filename, encoding='utf-8') to cssutils main package which work like the CSSParser functions with the same name and API

  • return value of .cssText is u'' and not None if empty now

  • serializing
    • cssutils.Serializer renamed to cssutils.CSSSerializer to improve usage of

      from cssutils import *

    • cssutils has a property “ser” which is used by all classes to serialize themselves it is definable with a custom instance of cssutils.Serializer by setting cssutils.setCSSSerializer(newserializer)

    • prefs[‘CSSImportrule.href format’] may be set to
      • ‘uri’: renders url(...) (default)
      • ‘string’: renders ”...”
      • None: renders as set in CSSImportRule.hreftype
  • css.CSSCharsetRule:
    • improved parsing
    • fixed API handling (setting of encoding did not work)
  • css.CSSImportRule:
    • improved parsing
  • usage of *.getFormatted emits DeprecationWarning now and returns *.cssText

  • lots of bugfixes and refactoring of modules, classes

  • extension and refactoring of unittests

0.9a1 - 060905 with a new parser (again)
  • new tokenizer, complete rewrite
    • parses strings and comments
    • parses unicode escape sequences (see following)
    • emits CSS tokens according to spec (update: not all yet (ESCAPE)!)
  • renamed module “comment” to “csscomment” and class “Comment” to “CSSComment”

  • configurable Serializer instead of pprint

  • reimplemented CSSMediaRule


0.8a6 - 050827
  • bugfixes in valuevalidator regarding values of “background-position”, thanks to Tim Gerla!
0.8a5 - 050824
  • bugfix in css.Comment: if constructor was called with empty or no cssText an exception was raised, reported by Tim Gerla!
  • prepared inline comments run through epydoc and generated API docs
0.8a4 - 050814
    • does download linked, inline and @imported stylesheets now
    • renamed csscapture.Capture to csscapture.CSSCapture
    • added options, use -h to view all options
  • cssutils.css.CSSStyleSheet defines literalCssText property if property cssText is set. This is the unparsed cssText and might be different to cssText e.g. in case of parser errors.

0.8a3 - 050813
  • custom log for CSSparser should work again

  • calling script cssparser has 2 new options (not using optparse yet...) filename.css [encoding[, “debug”]] 1. encoding of the filename.css to parse 2. if called with “debug” debugging mode is enabled and default log prints all messages

  • cssutils.css.CSSUnknownRule reintegrated and Tests added

  • cssutils.Comment reintegrated

    implements css.CSSRule, there a new typevalue COMMENT (=-1) is added

  • lexer does handle strings almost right now...

  • bugfixes

  • simplified lexer, still lots of simplification todo

0.8a2 - 050731
  • CSSParser may now directly be used from cssutils cssutils.cssparser as a standalone script does work too.
  • css.CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyCSSValue(name) implemented
  • css.CSSValue updated
  • xml.dom.InvalidModificationErr now raised by CSSRule subclasses instead of xml.dom.SyntaxErr in case a non expected rule has been tried to set
  • test are updated to the new API and work (not complete and exhaustive though but a bit more than for 0.61)
  • bugfixes in some classes due to reanimated tests
  • moved module valuevalidator from cssutils.css to cssutils. Should not be used directly anyway
  • split CSSParser in actual CSSParser and utility module used by CSSParser and each css class cssText setting method
  • loghandler.ErrorHandler does raiseExceptions by default now. Only CSSParser does overwrite this behaviour. Some tests still need to be looked into...
0.8a1 - 050730
bugfix medialist
medium “projection” was spelled wrong (ended with a space)
new examples and new structure on the website
  • new package cssutils.css which contains CSS interface implementations (css.CSSStyleSheet, css.CSSRuleList etc)

  • new package cssutils.stylesheets which contains Stylesheets interface implementations are in (stylesheets.StyleSheet, stylesheets.MediaList etc)

  • module cssutils.cssbuilder has therefor been removed and is replaced by packages cssutils.css and cssutils.stylesheets. (You may like to define your own cssbuilder module which imports all new classes with their old name if you do not want to change all your code at this time. Usage of the new names is recommended however and there are more subtle changes.)

  • CSS interfaces use W3 DOM names normally starting with CSS... now (e.g. CSSStyleSheet)

  • CSSStyleSheet now uses superclass stylesheets.StyleSheet

  • CSSImportRule is changed to comply to its specification (MediaList is after the URI and not before)

  • CSSFontfaceRule (cssutils FontfaceRule) is removed as CSS 2.1 removed this @ rule completely

  • CSSProperties is removed. Properties are useful in CSSStyleDeclaration only anyway and are used through that class now.

  • some parameters have been renamed to their respective DOM names (e.g. selector is selectorText now in CSSStyleRule constructor

  • the API has been cleaned up a bit. Some redundant methods have been removed.
    • cssmediarule: removed getRules(), use cssRules property instead
  • Comment as a rule is removed currently, might be reintegrated in a future version.

  • some classes which have not been implemented fully anyway are not available until they are finished. This is mainly CSSMediaRule (will follow shortly), CSSUnknownRule, CSSValue and other value classes.


0.61 - 050604
bugfix reported and fixed thanks to Matt Harrison:
‘border-left-width’ property was missing from
tiny internal changes

added modules to validate Properties and Values thanks to Kevin D. Smith

MediaList renamed media type “speech” to “aural”


0.55_52 - 040517 bugfix bugfix release
should do test first ;) added unittest and fix for fix
0.55_51 - 040517 bugfix release
cssstylesheet.StyleSheet _pprint was renamed to _getCssText but the call in pprint was not changed...
0.55_5 - 040509



addProperty made/named private DEPRECATED anyway, use setProperty

parentRule raises NotImplementedError

RGBColor Implemented PrimitiveValue uses RGBColor

CSSParser uses setProperty instead of addProperty now StyleDeclaration, Value, ValueList, PrimitiveValue, RGBcolor done comparing spec and module docstrings

made list of TODOs

0.55_4 - 040502

implement *Rule.cssText setting (UnknownRule not complete)

lexer has no log anymore, simply “logs” everything to the resulting tokenlist

cssstylesheet simplified


0.55_3 not released

cssnormalizer renamed, does not work anyway at the moment

implemented StyleRule.cssText setting

cssproperties.Property has new init param raiseExceptions similar to the one of CSSParser. does not log yet and functionality might change as well * what will not change is that you can specify not officially specified properties (like moz-opacity etc)

some cleanup in various classes

0.55_2 not released
tests only
0.55_1 not released
CSSFontFaceRule and CSSPageRule style is readonly now
CSSRule implementation cssText setting improved docstrings
CSSCharsetRule, CSSFontFaceRule, CSSFontFaceRule, CSSImportRule, CSSSMediaRule, CSSPageRule, CSSStyleRule, CSSUnknownRule
use CSSRule implementation
uses codecs module to check if valid encoding given
new property styleSheet, always None for now

simplified and cleaned up sources some bugfixes

added tests

test_cssrule test_csscharsetrule, test_cssfontfacerule, test_cssimportrule,

test_mediarule, test_stylesheetrule, test_unknownrule
subclass test_cssrule now
improved unittests
test_cssstylesheet import problem removed
0.55b not released
start implementation StyleRule.cssText setting
0.54 not released
Comment.cssText contains comment delimiter attribute text of Comment private now, renamed to _text ALPHA new StyleSheet.cssText property (not in W3C DOM)
Commentable checked only for str, not unicode. now both Parser did not raises all errors, might still not do (s. a.)

added unittest for __init__ module

0.53 - 040418

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version - on hold for 1.0

new cssunknownrule.UnknownRule (moved out of module cssrule) parser now creates Unknown At-Rules in the resulting StyleSheet. they are no longer just dumped and reported in the parser log.

0.52 - 040414

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version - on hold for 1.0

whitespace in comments will be preserved now
added unittest
0.51 - 040412

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version - on hold for 1.0

API CHANGES cssrule.SimpleAtRule DEPRECATED and empty cssmediarule.MediaRule init param “medias” renamed to “media” use subclasses of CSSRule (CharsetRule, ImportRule, FontFaceRule or PageRule) instead StyleRule constructor can be called with arguments (again...) Comment attribute “comment” renamed to “text”

implemented at least partly almost all DOM Level 2 CSS interfaces now so the API should be more stable from now on

new statemachine and lexer helper classes for parsing complete rewrite of CSSParser CSSParser and lexer put all error messages in a log now you might give your own log for messages CSSParser might be configured just to log errors or to raise xml.dom.DOMExceptions when finding an error


0.41 - 040328

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version - on hold for 1.0

API CHANGES StyleSheet.getRules() returns a RuleList now class Selector removed, integrated into Rules now

moved most Classes to own module
StyleSheet, StyleRule, MediaRule, ...
0.40a - 040321

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version

API CHANGES: cssbuilder.RuleList subclasses list cssbuilder.Selector moved to cssrules attribute style of class StyleRule made private (_style) removed StyleRule.clearStyleDeclaration attribute selectorlist of class Selector renamed to _selectors and made private

NEW: MediaList class

moved tests to directory test

made a dist package complete with


0.31 - 040320

!cssnormalizer does not work in this version

API CHANGES: StyleDeclaration.addProperty is now DEPRECATED use StyleDeclaration.setProperty instead

removed CSSParser.pprint(). use CSSParser.getStyleSheet().pprint() instead
(a StyleSheet object had a pprint method anyway)
replaced cssutils own exceptions with standard xml.dom.DOMException
and subclasses !catch these exceptions instead of CSSException or CSSParserException
moved internal lists (e.g. StyleSheet.nodes list) to private vars
StyleSheet._nodes !please use methods instead of implementation details

removed cssexception module removed csscomment module, classes now directly in cssutils

more unittests, start with python cssutils/

more docs

integrated patches by Cory Dodt for SGML comments and Declaration additions added some w3c DOM methods

0.30b - 040216

severe API changes renamed some classes to (almost) DOM names, the CSS prefix of DOM names is ommited though

renamed are
  • Stylesheet TO StyleSheet
  • Rule TO StyleRule
  • AtMediaRule TO MediaRule
  • Declaration TO StyleDeclaration

the according methods are renamed as well

class hierarchy is changed as well, please see the example

classes are organized in new modules


0.24_1 - 040214
legal stuff: added licensing information no files released
0.24 - 040111
split classes in modules, has to be cleaned up again
0.24b - 040106
cleaned up cssbuilder
  • Comment now may only contain text

    and no comment end delimiter. (before it had to be a complete css comment including delimiters)

  • AtMediaRule revised completely

    validates given media types new method: addMediaType(media_type)

cssparser updated to new cssbuilder interface and logic started unittests (v0.0.0.1..., not included yet)

0.23 - 031228

new CSSNormalizer.normalizeDeclarationOrder(stylesheet)

cssbuilder: added methods needed by CSSNormalizer

CSSParser.parse bugfix

0.22 - 031226
added n for a declaration ending in addition to ; and }
docstrings added for @import and @charset support build of a selector list in a rule
0.21 - 031226
cleaned up docstrings and added version information
0.20 - 031224
complete rewrite with combination of parser and builder classes


0.10 - 031221 first version to try if i can bring it to work at all

only a prettyprinter included, no builder

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